Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Aloe Vera.

  • Botanical Name: Aloe Vera

  • Ayurvedic Name: Ghrita Kumari

  • Common Name: Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera

Plant Phytonutrient Profile

1: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Apr;16(2):151-157.

Effect of Aloe vera leaf pulp extract on Ehrlich ascites tumours in mice.

Akev N, Turkay G, Can A, Gurel A, Yildiz F, Yardibi H, Ekiz EE, Uzun H.

aDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Beyazit
Departments of bBiochemistry cPathology dPhysiology, Veterinary Faculty,
Istanbul University, Avcilar eDepartment of Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Faculty of
Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Among the various known therapeutic effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil., a few
recent studies have shown that preparations of the plant leaves can prevent or
regress the growth of certain tumours. In this study, undertaken with A. vera
leaf pulp extract against Ehrlich ascites tumours in mice, the animals were
separated into five groups: I - healthy control, II - tumour control, III -
experiment 1 (extract given before tumour inoculation), IV - experiment 2
(extract given with tumour inoculation) and V - experiment 3 (extract given
after tumour inoculation). Ehrlich ascites tumours (0.33 ml) were injected
subcutaneously into groups II-V. Aloe extract was injected at 55 mg protein/kg,
twice a week for 21 days. Tumour size, thymus and spleen weights were measured,
as well as leucocyte count, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and sialic acid as
tumour markers. The best inhibitory effect on tumour growth was obtained with
the extract given prophylactically before tumour implantation (experiment 1),
although Aloe extract also regressed tumour sizes when given simultaneously with
(experiment 2), or therapeutically after (experiment 3), tumour implantation.
Accordingly, serum sialic acid and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, chosen
as tumour markers, which were raised in the tumour control group, were
significantly decreased by the prophylactic administration of the extract. The
increase in leucocyte count seen in experiment 1 and 2 groups, along with
lymphoid hyperplasia observed in spleen and thymus necroscopy, lead us to think
that the tumour preventive effect of Aloe could be due to its immunomodulatory
activity. According to our results, A. vera could be proposed as a prophylactic
for cancer prevention.

PMID: 17297391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Jan 18;6(1) [Epub ahead of print]

Aloe(-Emodin) for Cancer?: More than Just a Comforting Salve.

Dorsey JF, Kao GD.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

PMID: 17297301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3: Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Feb;12(1):109.

Aloe-induced henoch-schonlein purpura.

Kim EJ, Kim HJ, Kim SG, Lee YS, Oh JE, Seo JW, Koo JR, Noh JW.

Department of Nephrology, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, South Korea.

PMID: 17295672 [PubMed - in process]

4: Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Feb 12; [Epub ahead of print]

Simultaneous quantification of five anthraquinones in rat plasma by
high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

Yan D, Ma Y.

College of Chinese Material Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China.

A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence
detection (excitation 435 and emission 515 nm) was established and validated for
quantification of five anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol
and physcion) in rat plasma. Following a single-step liquid-liquid extraction,
the analytes and internal standard (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone) were separated
on a reversed-phase C(18) column with water-phosphoric acid-methanol as mobile
phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The linear ranges of the calibration curves
were 6.5-1300 ng/mL for aloe-emodin, 20-4000 ng/mL for rhein, 40-8000 ng/mL for
emodin, 15-3000 ng/mL for chrysophanol and 13-2600 ng/mL for physcion. The lower
limit of quantification was 6.5 ng/mL for aloe-emodin, 20 ng/mL for rhein, 40
ng/mL for emodin, 15 ng/mL for chrysophanol and 13 ng/mL for physcion. The mean
accuracy was 94.3-105.1% for aloe-emodin, 90.3-108.8% for rhein, 92.6-106.7% for
emodin, 95.8-103.8% for chrysophanol and 98.7-101.2% for physcion. The
within-batch and between-batch precisions were </=5.5% and </=13.4%,
respectively. This method is suitable for determining the five anthraquinones in
plasma simultaneously and thus investigating the pharmacokinetics of
anthraquinones from Xiexin decoction in rats. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17294506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 14; [Epub ahead of print]

Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Mill. against carbon
tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.

Chandan BK, Saxena AK, Shukla S, Sharma N, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Suri J, Bhadauria
M, Singh B.

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu-Tawi
180 016, India.

Aloe barbadensis Mill. Syn. Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn.(Liliaceae) has been used
in variety of diseases in traditional Indian system of medicine in India and its
use for hepatic ailments is also documented. In the present study an attempt has
been made to validate its hepatoprotective activity. The shade dried aerial
parts of Aloe barbadensis were extracted with petroleum ether (AB-1), chloroform
(AB-2) and methanol (AB-3). The plant marc was extracted with distilled water
(AB-4). All the extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity on limited
test models as hexobarbitone sleep time, zoxazolamine paralysis time and marker
biochemical parameters. AB-1 and AB-2 were observed to be devoid of any
hepatoprotective activity. Out of two active extracts (AB-3 and AB-4), the most
active AB-4 was studied in detail. AB-4 showed significant hepatoprotective
activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity as evident by restoration of
serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and triglycerides.
Hepatoprotective potential was confirmed by the restoration of lipid
peroxidation, glutathione, glucose-6-phosphatase and microsomal aniline
hydroxylase and amidopyrine N-demethylase towards near normal. Histopathology of
the liver tissue further supports the biochemical findings confirming the
hepatoprotective potential of AB-4. The present study shows that the aqueous
extract of Aloe barbadensis is significantly capable of restoring integrity of
hepatocytes indicated by improvement in physiological parameters, excretory
capacity (BSP retention) of hepatocytes and also by stimulation of bile flow
secretion. AB-4 did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 2g/kg in

PMID: 17291700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6: J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jan 27; [Epub ahead of print]

Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in rhubarb by high-performance
liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

Koyama J, Morita I, Kobayashi N.

Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-8558, Japan.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)
were compared to simultaneously determine and separate 11 anthraquinones from
rhubarb, including emodin, chrysophanol, rhein and their glucosides,
aloe-emodin, sennoside A, and sennoside B. A UV-diode array detector (DAD) at
254nm with a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water (method A: 0min 6:94, 12min
12:88, 15min 20:80, 40min 25:75, 53min 55:45, 55min 100:0; method B: 0min 5:95,
2min 15:85, 5min 20:80, 12min 25:75, 15min 50:50, 19min 98:2) at 28(+/-1)
degrees C (method A) and 30-60 degrees C (method B) in HPLC or with 0.03M borate
buffer (pH 10.0) containing 25% (v/v) acetonitrile with 0.002M
2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) and 0.005M alpha-CD in CE effectively
detected this separation in 25min. The detection limits of anthraquinones from
rhubarb were in the 0.02-0.2mug/mL and 0.1-0.8mug/mL ranges for HPLC and CE,
respectively. The established HPLC and CE methods are suitable for quantitative
determination of emodin, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin-1-beta-d-glucoside,
emodin-8-beta-d-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-beta-d-glucoside,
chrysophanol-8-beta-d-glucoside, and rhein-8-beta-d-glucoside.

PMID: 17289060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

7: Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;22(5):362-5.

[The effects of aloe extract on nitric oxide and endothelin levels in
deep-partial thickness burn wound tissue in rat]

[Article in Chinese]

Lv RL, Wu BY, Chen XD, Jiang Q.

Institute of Burns, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzou 350001, P.
R. China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracted from Aloe
barbadensis and Aloe barbedensis containing gel on tissue water contents, nitric
oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels in wounds of burned rats. METHODS: Four
areas of deep-partial thickness burn wounds with 3 cm in diameter were made on
each back of 42 male Wistar rats. Single layer gauze impregnated either with 5%
(W/W) aloe raw polysaccharide, 10% (W/W) aloe gel, 1% (W/W) sulfadiazine
pyridine silver cream (SD-Ag), or normal saline was respectively applied on
different wounds. According to different medications, the wounds were divided
into aloe raw polysaccharide group, aloe gel group, SD-Ag group and normal
saline group. Six rats in each group were sacrificed at 4, 12, 24, 48 post-scald
hour (PSH) and on 7, 14, 21 post-scald day (PSD), and the full-thickness skin of
wound was harvested for the determination of wound tissues water contents, NO
and ET levels, and for calculation of NO/ET ratio. Another 6 normal rats served
as normal controls. RESULTS: The water content in the wound tissue in aloe raw
polysaccharide group at 12, 24 and 48 PSH [(73.4 +/- 3.8)%, (76.6+/-3.0)%,
(70.6+/-3.8)%] and aloe gel group [(74.5+/-2.6)%, (77.1+/-3.6)%, (71.2 +/-
3.1)%] was obviously lower than those in SD-Ag group [(80.1 +/- 4.1)%, (80.5
+/-3.9)%, (76.1 +/-3.8)%, P <0.05]. During 7-21 PSD, all of them returned to the
normal level except that in SD-Ag group, as it was still higher than that in
normal controls (P < 0.05). The NO content in wound tissue in each group reached
the peak at 12 PSH, decreased thereafter, but it was still obviously higher than
that of normal controls on 21 PSD (P < 0.05). The ET content in wound tissue of
each group reached the peak on 7 or 14 PSD, decreased thereafter, but it was
still evidently higher than that in normal controls on 7 or 14 PSD (P < 0.05).
The NO content in wound tissue in aloe raw polysaccharide and aloe gel group
were markedly lower than those in SD-Ag and normal saline groups at 12 and 24
PSH ( P < 0.05). The NO/ET ratio in each group reached the peak at 12 PSH,
decreased thereafter, and it returned to normal value on 14 PSD. On 7 PSD, the
NO/ET ratio in aloe gel, SD-Ag and normal saline groups were still significantly
higher than that in normal controls, except that returned to normal value in
aloe raw polysaccharide group. CONCLUSION: Both aloe raw polysaccharide and aloe
gel can decrease wound tissue NO release, optimize NO/ET ratio, lighten vascular
inflammatory reaction, and lessen permeability and edema.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17283882 [PubMed - in process]

8: Oral Oncol. 2007 Jan 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Aloe-emodin induces in vitro G2/M arrest and alkaline phosphatase activation in
human oral cancer KB cells.

Xiao B, Guo J, Liu D, Zhang S.

School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Aloe-emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound from the root and rhizome of
Rheum palmatum. In this study, KB cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and
40muM aloe-emodin for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited
cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with aloe-emodin at 10 to
40muM resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) activity in KB cells increased upon treatment with aloe-emodin when
compared to controls. This is one of the first studies to focus on the
expression of ALP in human oral carcinomas cells treated with aloe-emodin. These
results indicate that aloe-emodin has anti-cancer effect on oral cancer, which
may lead to its use in chemotherapy and chemopreventment of oral cancer.

PMID: 17257888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

9: Planta Med. 1997 Oct;63(5):454-6.

A New Bisbenzopyran from Aloe barbadensis Roots.

Saleem R, Faizi S, Deeba F, Siddiqui BS, Qazi MH.

Dr. H. M. I. Institute of Pharmacology & Herbal Sciences, Hamdard University,
Sharae Madinatal Hikma, Mohammad Bin Qasim Avenue, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.

A new bisbenzopyran ( 1) has been isolated from the methanolic extract of roots
of ALOE BARBADENSIS through solvent separation and vacuum liquid chromatography.
Based on spectral analysis including 2D-NMR (COSY, NOESY, J-resolved, HMQC, and
HMBC) techniques, the structure of compound 1 was assigned as
3,3'-bis(3,4-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2 H-1-benzopyran).

PMID: 17252367 [PubMed - in process]

10: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):585-90.

Effects of aloe arborescens ingestion on azoxymethane-induced intestinal
carcinogenesis and hematological and biochemical parameters of male F344 rats.

Shimpo K, Beppu H, Chihara T, Kaneko T, Shinzato M, Sonoda S.

Fujita Memorial Nanakuri Institute, Fujita Health University, Tsu, Mie 514-1296
Japan. [email protected]

We examined the modifying effect of freeze-dried whole-leaf Aloe arborescens
Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe in Japan; designated as 'ALOE') on
azoxymethane (AOM)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in rats. Male F344 rats (4
weeks old) were fed basal diet or experimental diet containing 0.2% or 1% ALOE
for 28 weeks. Starting two weeks later, the animals received subcutaneous
injections of AOM once weekly for 10 weeks. The incidence of colorectal
adenocarcinomas in the 0.2% (but not 1%) ALOE group showed a strong tendency for
decrease (p = 0.056) from the control group. Further, the adenocarcinoma
incidence in the entire intestine (small and large intestines) in the 0.2% ALOE
group was significantly (p = 0.024) decreased compared to the control value.
However, there were no significant differences in tumor multiplicities of
colorectal or entire intestines among the 3 groups. In addition, we also studied
the safety of long-term ingestion of ALOE as a health food or natural thickening
stabilizer. Rats were fed the basal diet or 1% ALOE diet for 35 weeks without
AOM treatment. Feeding with 1% ALOE did not affect most hematological and serum
biochemical parameters in the rats. These results indicate that a low level of
ALOE ingestion might have a mild suppressive effect on intestinal tumor growth
without harmful side effects.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17250432 [PubMed - in process]

11: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 1; [Epub ahead of print]

Ethnotherapeautic management of skin diseases among the Kikuyus of Central

Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW.

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department, P.O.
Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya.

Skin health is increasingly becoming an important aspect of primary health care
among many communities particularly because of the increased challenge of
HIV-AIDS, skin conditions being among the common opportunistic diseases in
immuno-compromised individuals. This study investigated the use of traditional
remedies in managing various skin conditions in the Central Province of Kenya.
Fifty-seven plant species in 31 families were identified as regularly utilized.
Of these plants 27 species had a frequency of three and above. Some of the
highly utilized plant species include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Senna
didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Barneby, Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm., Croton
macrostachyus Del. and Aloe secundifolia Engl. In the majority of the cases the
sap or occasionally the latex was applied directly on the affected areas. In
other cases the plant parts were heated and used as poultice. Only in few
conditions were the plant parts boiled and the extract used for washing affected
areas, probably acting as antiseptic. This study found that 14 skin conditions
were commonly managed using herbal preparations. Of these conditions nine (9)
had informant consensus of 0.5 and above, with the highest consensus found in
management of swellings and skin sores. Soils were also cited as an important
non-plant resource for management of skin conditions especially those associated
with measles. Since most skin conditions are caused by microorganisms such as
bacteria, viruses and fungi, the medicinal plants and other resources reported
in this study form a justifiable basis for antimicrobial trials, pharmacological
and phytochemical analysis, with promising results.

PMID: 17207950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12: Toxicol Lett. 2007 Jan 30;168(2):165-75. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Photo-irradiation of Aloe vera by UVA--formation of free radicals, singlet
oxygen, superoxide, and induction of lipid peroxidation.

Xia Q, Yin JJ, Fu PP, Boudreau MD.

National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration,
Jefferson, AR 72079, USA.

Aloe vera whole leaf extracts are incorporated into a wide variety of topically
applied commercial products. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may contain
anthraquinones, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species in the
presence of ultraviolet A (UVA) light. Exposure to UVA light alone can also
generate reactive oxygen species and is associated with photo-damaged and
photo-aged skin in humans. This paper examines the photochemical properties of
two Aloe vera whole leaf extracts that differed in their anthraquinone content.
In the presence of methyl linoleate, the UVA irradiation of Aloe vera leaf
extracts induced lipid peroxidation. The amounts of lipid peroxides formed were
higher in the Aloe vera leaf extract that contained lower amounts of
anthraquinones. Superoxide dismutase and sodium azide inhibited and deuterium
oxide enhanced the formation of lipid peroxides, suggesting that singlet oxygen
and superoxide were involved in the mechanism. Spin trapping electron spin
resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the generation of free
radicals by the UVA photo-irradiated Aloe vera plant extracts. ESR measurements
indicated that the UVA photo-irradiation of Aloe vera plant extracts produced
carbon-centered free radicals. These results suggest that humans exposed to
products that contain Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may have enhanced
sensitivity to ultraviolet light.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 17197137 [PubMed - in process]

13: Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Oct;41(10):1000-3.

[Active constituents from Aloe arborescens as BACE inhibitors]

[Article in Chinese]

Gao B, Yao CS, Zhou JY, Chen RY, Fang WS.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese
Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese
Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050,

AIM: To seek for new components as BACE inhibitors from Aloe arborescens.
METHODS: The chemical constituents were isolated by chromatographic methods and
their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. RESULTS:
Eight compounds were isolated and their structures identified as 6'-O-isobutyryl
aloenin A (1), aloenin A (2), aloe-emodin (3),
one (4), 7-O-methylaloeresin A (5), babarloin A (6), elgonica-dimer A (7), and
elgonica-dimer B (8), separately. CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a new compound, and
compound 4 was isolated from A. arborescens for the first time. Pharmacological
tests indicated that 2, 4, 5 and 6 have moderate inhibitory active on BACE.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17184120 [PubMed - in process]

14: J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):51-64.

Herb use among health care professionals enrolled in an online curriculum on
herbs and dietary supplements.

Gardiner P, Legedza A, Woods C, Phillips RS, Kemper KJ.

Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical
Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
paula[email protected]

BACKGROUND: Although many adults in the United States use herbs, little is known
about the personal use of herbs by health care professionals (HCPs) and factors
associated with use. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of HCPs prior
to their enrollment in an online course about herbs and dietary supplements
between September 2004 and May 2005. We used multivariable logistic regression
to analyze demographic and practice factors associated with herb use. RESULTS:
Of the 1249 health care professionals surveyed, 51% reported using an herb in
the last week. The rates of use were highest among physician assistants or nurse
practitioners (PA or NP) (63%), clinical nurses (59%), and HCP students (52%),
while physicians (48%), dietitians (40%), and pharmacists (37%) had lower rates.
Among health care professionals who reported herb use, the most common herbs
taken were green tea (24%), flax seed (18%), chamomile (11%), and aloe vera
(8%). Factors associated with herb use included older age, being a nurse, a HCP
student, an NP or PA compared with being a physician, being non-Caucasian,
living outside of North Carolina and having increased knowledge of herbs and
dietary supplements.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

PMID: 17182485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006 Nov;6(4):79-84.

Efficacy in treatment of cervical HRHPV infection by combination of beta
interferon, and herbal therapy in woman with different cervical lesions.

Iljazovic E, Ljuca D, Sahimpasic A, Avdic S.

Pathology Department, Polyclinic for Laboratory Diagnostic, University Clinics
Center Tuzla, Trnovac 1, Gradina, 75,000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Cervical dysplasia, a premalignant lesion that can progress to cervical cancer,
is caused primarily by a sexually transmitted infection with an oncogenic strain
of the human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV infections are treated through
destroying the clinical lesions: laser, cryotherapy, podophyllin... The hope is
that by causing local tissue inflammation that the body will be stimulated to
mount an antibody response and thereby prevent recurrence. In contrast to other
prevention approaches, vaccines can reduce susceptibility in uninfected partners
by stimulating the immune system. Aloe vera has also been reported to retard
tumour growth and stimulate the immune response to viruses. A list of possible
actions of propolis includes: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant,
anticarcinogenic, antithrombotic and immunomodulatory. Research on the possible
role of some B vitamins in preventing cancer began in the last few decades, but
however this complex have an influence on immune status. The aim of our study is
to try to treat the HPV infection as confirmed cause of neoplastic
transformation with some herbal therapy and interferon and to try define the
guidelines in the management of the HPV positive patients. Goal of this paper is
to search for evidence of efficacy of any treatment for HPV infection of the
cervix mostly in woman with no concomitant CIN. Fifty five woman affected by HPV
genital infection were enrolled in the study from September 2005 to April 2006.
Patients were classified according to the results of the HPV testing prior and
after the therapy. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was
HPV positive woman treated with other than recommended therapy (n=20), (control
group); the second group was pharmacologically treated with intravaginal
administration of an interferon and aloe vera-propolis in recommended scheme
(n=35) with treatment of the possible fungal or bacterial genital infection
prior to the specific therapy. The almost same therapy was recommended to the
male partner. Patients from the second group used B complex during the therapy.
Patients were retested for the HPV presence after three or six month from
therapy depend of the presence bacterial or fungal genital coinfection. Three
months after applied therapy HPV infection was still present in more than 90% of
the patients in the first group. In the second group treated according to the
recommended therapy scheme HPV infection disappeared in 71.42% of the patients
after three months and in 100% of patients after six months. Samples of the
cervical smear for the HPV analysis were being taken during routine
gynecological examinations, by using sticks with cotton, taken from the Digene
Specimen Collection Kit, from the whole surface of a portion, and by mild
rotating moves from the outer cervical entrance. Our results suggest that the
combination of interferon and herbal therapy with B complex is effective,
atraumatic and simple non-surgical treatment of HPV infection. Since prospective
efficacy trials will take several years to complete, considering alternative
approaches is also worthwhile.

PMID: 17177657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Jan 29;6(1) [Epub ahead of print]

Growth Inhibitory Effects of Gastric Cancer Cells with an Increase in S Phase
and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Repression by Aloe-Emodin.

Guo J, Xiao B, Zhang S, Liu D, Liao Y, Sun Q.

School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Aloe-emodin is a novel active compound found in the root and rhizome of Rheum
palmatum. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on human
gastric cancer, MGC-803 cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 muM
aloe-emodin for 1-5 d. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth
of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with an increase in S phase and in
the proportion of cells cycling at a higher ploidy level (>G(2)/M). Moreover,
the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an indicator of cell differentiation,
was found decreased. This is one of the first to focus on the effect of ALP
activity in human gastric carcinomas cells treated by aloe-emodin. These results
indicate that aloe-emodin has a potential value for the treatment of gastric
cancer and its mechanisms are by means of cell cycle interruption and induce

PMID: 17172820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

17: Ecology. 2006 Nov;87(11):2709-16.

Dark, bitter-tasting nectar functions as a filter of flower visitors in a
bird-pollinated plant.

Johnson SD, Hargreaves AL, Brown M.

School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P.
Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa. [email protected]

Floral nectar is offered by plants to animals as a reward for pollination. While
nectar is typically a clear liquid containing sugar and trace amounts of amino
acids, colored nectar has evolved in several plant families. Here we explore the
functional significance of the phenolic compounds that impart a dark brown color
to the nectar of the South African succulent shrub Aloe vryheidensis. Flowers of
this aloe are visited for their nectar by a suite of short-billed birds that are
occasional nectarivores, including bulbuls, white-eyes, rock thrushes, and
chats. Dark-capped Bulbuls were more likely to probe model flowers containing
dark nectar than those containing clear nectar, suggesting a potential signaling
function for dark nectar. However, the main effect of the phenolics appears to
be to repel "unwanted" nectarivores that find their bitter taste unpalatable.
Nectar-feeding honey bees and sunbirds are morphologically mismatched for
pollinating A. vryheidensis flowers and strongly reject its nectar. However, the
frugivorous and insectivorous birds that effectively pollinate this aloe are
seemingly unaffected by the nectar's bitter taste. Thus the dark phenolic
component of the nectar appears to function as a floral filter by attracting
some animals visually and deterring others by its taste.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17168015 [PubMed - in process]

18: Glycoconj J. 2007 Jan;24(1):81-6.

In vitro antileishmanial activity of Aloe vera leaf exudate: A potential herbal
therapy in leishmaniasis.

Dutta A, Mandal G, Mandal C, Chatterjee M.

Department of Immunobiology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S. C.
Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700 032, India, [email protected]

Aloe vera has wide spread use in health products, and despite several reports on
the whole plant and inner gel, little work has been performed on the leaf
exudate. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of Aloe vera leaf exudate
(AVL) in leishmaniasis. Irrespective of the disease manifestation, promastigotes
from strains responsible for cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral
leishmaniasis were susceptible to AVL and their IC(50) ranged from 100 to 180
mug/ml. In axenic amastigotes cultured from a L. donovani strain 2001
responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, the IC(50) was 6.0 mug/ml. AVL caused
activation of host macrophages evident by an increased release of members of
reactive oxygen species that was attenuated by preincubation with free radical
scavengers. Collectively, our data indicates that AVL, via its direct
leishmanicidal activity which can be further enhanced by activation of host
macrophages, is an effective antileishmanial agent meriting further
pharmacological investigations.

PMID: 17146713 [PubMed - in process]

19: Rev Enferm. 2006 Oct;29(10):25-30.

[Prevention of vascular ulcers and diabetic foot non-random open clinical
evaluation on the effectiveness of "Mepentol Leche"]

[Article in Spanish]

Puentes Sanchez J, Pardo Gonzalez CM, Pardo Gonzalez MB, Navarro Casado FJ,
Puentes Sanchez R, Mendez Gonzalez JM, Gonzalez Rojo J, Juarez Morales A, Lopez
Fernandez IM.

Enfermeria de Cirugia Vascular, Hospital Torrecadenas, Almeria.

INTRODUCTION: Vascular ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers present a health serious
problem which affects a large number of patients, creating a major challenge for
health professionals. Hyper-oxygenated fatty acid dressings have proven to be
effective thanks to their favorable action on the skin in three ways: increasing
the microcirculation of the blood, promoting the renovation of the epidermic
cells, and notably increasing cutaneous hydration. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the
effectiveness of Mepentol Leche, an emulsion based on Hyper-oxygenated fatty
acids, Aloe barbadensis and Mimosa tenuiflora, used to treat the skin and
alleviate symptoms in patients who suffer from vascular ulcers and diabetic foot
ulcers. METHODS: Clinical evaluation carried out between June 2004 and December
2005. 195 patients were studied. The parameters for inclusion in this study were
32.82% for venous pathology 35.90% for skin care, 26.67% due to arterial
pathology, and 4.62% for a lymphatic pathology. These patients were evaluated
over a one month period and each had a follow-up by means of a data collection
file. The guideline to apply this product was twice a day and always over
integral skin. The effectiveness of this product has been established based on
these epigraphs: symptoms of itching, smarting and pain, and skin conditions:
color, dryness, edema, maceration, rashes, and desquamation. RESULTS: Not one
patient developed new lesions in healthy skin protected by Mepentol Leche.
Symptoms linked to this pathology saw improvements in these percents: itching
96%, smarting 93%, and pain 96%, and skin conditions: color 100%, edema 90%,
maceration 96%, rashes 92%, and desquamation 100%. Health professionals'
evaluation of this product has been highly favorable in regards to ease of use,
tolerance, absorption, and ease of application. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed
the benefits in applying this product systematically to alleviate the symptoms
prior to the appearance of ulcers, thus avoiding skin dryness and reducing
itching, smarting, pain and eczema while returning normal color to the skin.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17144630 [PubMed - in process]

20: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Sep;31(18):1496-9.

[Induction of hairy roots and anthraquinone production in Rheum palmatum]

[Article in Chinese]

Yang SH, Liu XF, Guo DA, Zhen JH.

College of Chinese Medicinal Material, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun
130118, China. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To study the induction of hairy roots and anthraquinone production in
Rheum palmatum. METHOD: Leaf blades, hypocotyls and petioles of R. palmatum were
infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 and A. rhizogenes R1601,
respectively. RESULT: Hairy roots were induced by two strains of A. rhizogenes,
and LBA9402 showed stronger infective ability than R1601. Three clones of hairy
roots were cultured. DH7a was induced by R1601, DH5a and DH5c were induced by
LBA9402. DH7a grew faster than DH5a and DH5c, and all of them grew faster
obviously than normal root (NOR). There were significant differences in
anthraquinone composition and content among four kinds of roots. Emodin physcion
and chrysophanol were predominant anthraquinone in DH5a, DH5c and NOR
respectivly. Aloe-emodin content was the lowest in all root cultures compared
with other four anthraquinones. CONCLUSION: The in vitro culture system of the
established hairy roots laid a foundation for mass production of anthraquinone
by hairy root culture.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17144464 [PubMed - in process]

21: Eur J Intern Med. 2006 Dec;17(8):589.

Aloe vera-induced acute toxic hepatitis in a healthy young man.

Kanat O, Ozet A, Ataergin S.

Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology, Gorukle,
Bursa, Turkey.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17142185 [PubMed - in process]

22: Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Dec;63(24):3083-9.

Evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect of aloe-emodin.

Cardenas C, Quesada AR, Medina MA.

Procel Lab, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of
Sciences, University of Malaga, 29071, Malaga, Spain.

The present study identified aloe-emodin (AE, a hydroxyanthraquinone from Aloe
vera and other plants) as a new anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects
in an in vivo angiogenesis assay and evaluates its effects on specific key steps
of the angiogenic process. AE inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, but this
effect is not cell specific, since AE also inhibits tumor cell proliferation.
Cell migration and invasion are not remarkably affected by AE. On the other
hand, AE has different effects on endothelial and tumor cell gelatinases. Two
main targets of the pharmacological action of AE as an anti-angiogenic compound
seem to be urokinase secretion and tubule formation of endothelial cells.
Finally, AE produces a remarkable photocytotoxic effect on tumor cells. Taken
together, our data indicate that AE can behave both as an anti-tumor and an
anti-angiogenic compound and suggest that AE could be a candidate drug for
photodynamic therapy.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17131052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Oct;19(4):337-40.

The protective effect of aloe vera juice on lindane induced hepatotoxicity and

Etim OE, Farombi EO, Usoh IF, Akpan EJ.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences University of Uyo,
Uyo, Nigeria. [email protected]

The protective effect of fresh aloe vera (AV) leaves extract on lindane (LD) -
induced hepatoxicity and genotoxicity was studied. Serum levels of hepatic
enzyme markers: glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (GOT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) were determined after oral administration of aloe vera leaves extract and
lindane. The level of polychromatic erythrocytes was also observed. Pretreatment
with aloe vera leaves extract at concentration of 1.0 ml/kg body weight
significantly decreased (P<0.05) the serum levels of GPT (by 41.8%), GOT (by
36.5%), GGT (by 14.3%) and ALP (by 10.7%) induced by 100mg/kg body weight of
lindane. The level of polychromatic erythrocytes observed was not statistically
significant when compared to control.

PMID: 17105716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Br J Anaesth. 2007 Jan;98(1):23-8. Epub 2006 Nov 9.

I.V. infusion of a drag-reducing polymer extracted from aloe vera prolonged
survival time in a rat model of acute myocardial ischaemia.

Sakai T, Repko BM, Griffith BP, Waters JH, Kameneva MV.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,
University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

BACKGROUND: I.V. infusion of drag-reducing polymers (DRPs) has been shown to
improve survival time in animals subjected to haemorrhagic shock. We
hypothesized that DRPs might prolong survival time in rats following acute
myocardial ischaemia (AMI). METHODS: Sixteen adult male rats were anaesthetized
and mechanically ventilated. An i.v. infusion of either Dextran-40 2.5%
(Control, n=8) or Dextran-40 2.5% containing 50 microg ml(-1) of an aloe
vera-based DRP (DRP, n=8) was initiated at 3.5 ml h(-1). The left anterior
descending coronary artery was ligated. Blood pressure, skin-tissue perfusion,
and heart rate were monitored and arterial blood samples were analysed. RESULTS:
The mortality at 60 min following coronary ligation was 0% in the DRP group vs
50% in the control group (P=0.025). DRP-treated animals maintained higher mean
arterial pressure [60.9 (5.1) vs 47.5 (5.1) mm Hg, P=0.004] and tissue perfusion
[4.2 (3.4) vs 1.2 (0.5) TPU, P=0.029]. The DRP group trended towards better
acid-base status with base excess [-5.0 (1.7) vs -8.1 (5.1) mmol litre(-1),
P=0.083] and pH [7.42 (0.07) vs 7.35 (0.02), P=0.03]. CONCLUSIONS:
Administration of nanomolar concentrations of aloe vera-based DRP prolonged
survival time in animals with AMI. DRPs may offer a novel method to treat
organ/tissue hypoperfusion.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17098722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Int J Pharm. 2007 Mar 21;333(1-2):10-6. Epub 2006 Oct 1.

Skin permeation enhancement potential of Aloe Vera and a proposed mechanism of
action based upon size exclusion and pull effect.

Cole L, Heard C.

Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XF, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the potential of Aloe Vera juice
as a skin permeation enhancer; a secondary aim was to probe the extent to which
Aloe Vera itself permeates the skin. Saturated solutions of caffeine,
colchicine, mefenamic acid, oxybutynin, and quinine were prepared at 32 degrees
C in Aloe Vera juice and water (control) and used to dose porcine ear skin
mounted in Franz diffusion cells with water as receptor phase. Receptor phase
samples were taken over a 48h period and permeants determined by reverse-phase
HPLC. For caffeine and mefenamic acid no significant enhancements occurred
between Aloe Vera and water as vehicles (p>0.05). However, for colchicine,
oxybutynin and quinine the presence of Aloe Vera within the formulation provided
enhancements (p</=0.05). Enhancement potential was dependent upon the molecular
weight of the drug in formulation, with the enhancement effect attributable to
as yet unidentified components within the Aloe Vera. Colchicine, with a
molecular weight of 399.44, achieved the best enhancement with an enhancement
ratio of 10.97. No correlation with lipophilicity was apparent. In a further
experiment, where freeze-dried Aloe Vera was reconstituted at 200% residue
level, permeation of quinine was 2.8x that from normal Aloe Vera, providing
further evidence for the presence of an enhancing factor within Aloe Vera.
Certain, although unidentified, components of Aloe Vera readily permeated skin
and the relative amount by which they permeated skin was inversely related to
the molecular weight of the drug in solution, thus enhancement ratio. A new
mechanistic rationale is proposed whereby larger drug solutes inhibit the
permeation of Alove Vera components, but also are then able to interact more
effectively with the enhancing factor and be subject to the pull effect.

PMID: 17088033 [PubMed - in process]

26: Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2006 Sep;73(3):175-8.

Determination and quantification of the in vitro activity of Aloe marlothii (A.
Berger) subsp. marlothii and Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) skeels acetone
extracts against Ehrlichia ruminantium.

Naidoo V, Zweygarth E, Swan GE.

Section of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Paraclinical Sciences,
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04,
Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

An Ehrlichia ruminantium culture system was utilized for the anti-rickettsial
evaluation of two ethnoveterinary plants, Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Aloe
marlothii. Well-established E. ruminantium cultures were incubated with the
plant leaf acetone extracts and compared to oxytetracycline and untreated
controls. Effectivity was established by comparing the percentage parasitised
cells and the calculation of both EC50 and extrapolated EC90 in microg/ml. The
plant extracts were also screened for antibacterial activity using
bioautography. Elephantorrhiza elephantina and A. marlothii demonstrated
anti-ehrlichial activity with an EC50 of 111.4 and 64.5 microg/ml and EC90 of
228.9 and 129.9 microg/ml, respectively. The corresponding EC50 and EC90 for
oxytetracycline was 0.29 and 0.08 microg/ml. Both plants appeared to produce
their inhibitory activity by a similar mechanism, unrelated to that of the
tetracyclines. Both the plant acetone extracts demonstrated antibacterial
activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC strains).

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17058439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Aug;89(8):1199-205.

Changes in urinary compositions among children after consuming prepared oral
doses of aloe (Aloe vera Linn).

Kirdpon S, Kirdpon W, Airarat W, Thepsuthammarat K, Nanakorn S.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

OBJECTIVES: 1) To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel,
and in the urine of healthy normal children, before and after consuming fresh
aloe gel. 2) To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among
subjects after taking aloe gel. 3) To determine the value of consuming aloe gel
for prevention of renal stone formation. DESIGN: Experimental study. MATERIAL
AND METHOD: Thirteen healthy boys between 9 and 13 years of age were enrolled
(with informed permission) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of
fresh prepared aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hour
urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of
consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the
urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric
acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in Calcium (PI Ca),
Permissible Increment in Oxalate (PI Ox), Concentration Product Ratio of Calcium
Phosphate (CPR CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. RESULTS: The citrate
and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg,
respectively. The 24-hr urine volume and urinary citrate excretion were
significantly increased (p < 0.05). The PI Ca and the PI Ox were also
significantly increased (p < 0.05). The other measurements were unremarkable.
CONCLUSION: One hundred grams of fresh Aloe vera gel contains 96.3 milligrams of
citrate and 158.9 milligrams of tartrate and were in the mid-range among Thai
fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe gel consumption
shows potential for preventing kidney stone formation among children.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial

PMID: 17048430 [PubMed - in process]

28: J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Aug;89 Suppl 2:S9-14.

Effect of aloe (Aloe vera Linn.) on healthy adult volunteers: changes in urinary

Kirdpon S, Kirdpon W, Airarat W, Trevanich A, Nanakorn S.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

OBJECTIVE: 1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and
in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe
gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among
subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel
for prevention of renal stone formation. DESIGNS: Experimental study; before and
after experiment with no control group MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty one healthy
male medical students between 18 and 23 years of age were enrolled (with
informed consent) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh aloe
gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hr urine was collected one
day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one
day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality,
potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate,
oxalate, Permissible Increment in calcium (PI in calcium), Permissible Increment
in oxalate (PI in oxalate), Concentration product ratio of calcium phosphate
(CPR of CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. RESULTS: The citrate and
tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg,
respectively. The urinary excretion of oxalate was significantly decreased (p <
0.05). The PI in calcium was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the
citrate excretion and PI in oxalate were consistently, albeit non-significantly,
increased. The mean CPR values of CaPO4 were decreased non-significantly. The
other measurements were unremarkable. CONCLUSION: Fresh Aloe vera gel (100 g)
contains 96.3 mg of citrate and 158.9 mg of tartrate. This is mid-range for Thai
fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe consumption shows
its potential for preventing kidney stone formation among adults.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial

PMID: 17044448 [PubMed - in process]

29: Parasitol Today. 1998 Aug;14(8):314-8.

Neuroinflammatory Implications of Schistosoma mansoni Infection: New Information
from the Mouse Model.

Aloe L, Fiore M.

Institute of Neurobiology, CNR, Viale Marx 15/43, 00137 Rome, Italy.

Schistosoma mansoni infection is known to induce granulomas, not only in the
liver and intestine, but also in the brain, resulting in neuropathological and
psychiatric disorders. In the past, the interaction between Schistosoma mansoni
infection and the nervous system has received little attention. Here, Luigi Aloe
and Marco Fiore discuss recent findings from experimental Schistosoma mansoni
infection in the mouse nervous system showing that brain granulomas are
associated with a significant alteration in the constitutive expression of nerve
growth factor, a neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in growth and
differentiation and in preventing neuronal damage. These findings suggest that
the neuropathological dysfunctions in neuroschistosomiasis may be linked to
changes in the basal levels and/or activity of neurotrophic factors caused by
local formation of granulomas.

PMID: 17040797 [PubMed - in process]

30: J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13;2:45.

Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes

Lans CA.

BCICS, University of Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 2Y2, Canada.
[email protected]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted
from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents.
METHODS: A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for
urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish
that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and
to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid
counter-prescribing. RESULTS: The following plants are used to treat diabetes:
Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia
daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena
globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus
urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and
for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and
Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for
hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana,
Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata,
Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus
sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum
campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus
indicus.The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce
hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea,
Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica,
Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants
are also used for gall stones and for cooling. CONCLUSION: Chamaesyce hirta,
Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae,
Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their
traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol.Eggplant
extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study.
The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and
justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens,
Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus
paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea
americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia
hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and
further trials should take this into account.

PMID: 17040567 [PubMed - in process]

31: Skin Res Technol. 2006 Nov;12(4):241-6.

Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in
different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

Dal'Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM.

Laboratory of Cosmetic Technology, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de
Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The polysaccharide-rich composition of Aloe vera extracts
(Aloe barbadensis Miller), often used in cosmetic formulations, may impart
moisturizing properties to the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate
the effect of cosmetic formulations containing different concentrations of
freeze-dried Aloe vera extract on skin hydration, after a single and a 1- and
2-week period of application, by using skin bioengineering techniques. METHODS:
Stable formulations containing 5% (w/w) of a trilaureth-4 phosphate-based blend
were supplemented with 0.10%, 0.25% or 0.50% (w/w) of freeze-dried Aloe vera
extract and applied to the volar forearm of 20 female subjects. Skin conditions
in terms of the water content of the stratum corneum and of transepidermal water
loss (TEWL) (Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 210) were analysed before and
after a single and 1- and 2-week period of daily application. RESULTS: After a
single application, only formulations supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) of
Aloe vera extract increased the water content of the stratum corneum, while
after the 2-week period application, all formulations containing the extract
(0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50%) had the same effect, in both cases as compared with the
vehicle. TEWL was not modified after a single and after 1- and 2-week period of
application, when compared with the vehicle. CONCLUSION: Our results show that
freeze-dried Aloe vera extract is a natural effective ingredient for improving
skin hydration, possibly through a humectant mechanism. Consequently, it may be
used in moisturizing cosmetic formulations and also as a complement in the
treatment of dry skin.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17026654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Med Res Rev. 2006 Oct 4; [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-cancer properties of anthraquinones from Rhubarb.

Huang Q, Lu G, Shen HM, Chung MC, Ong CN.

Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School
of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Rhubarb has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times and
today it is still present in various herbal preparations. In this review the
toxicological and anti-neoplastic potentials of the main anthraquinones from
Rhubarb, Rheum palmatum, will be highlighted. It is interesting to note that
although the chemical structures of various anthraquinones in this plant are
similar, their bioactivities are rather different. The most abundant
anthraquinone of rhubarb, emodin, was capable of inhibiting cellular
proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and prevention of metastasis. These
capabilities are reported to act through tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositol
3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), NF-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and
mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Aloe-emodin is
another major component in rhubarb found to have anti-tumor properties. Its
anti-proliferative property has been demonstrated to be through the p53 and its
downstream p21 pathway. Our recent proteomic study also suggests that the
molecular targets of these two anthraquinones are different. However, both
components were found to be able to potentiate the anti-proliferation of various
chemotherapeutic agents. Rhein is the other major rhubarb anthraquinone,
although less well studied. This compound could effectively inhibit the uptake
of glucose in tumor cells, caused changes in membrane-associated functions and
led to cell death. Interestingly, all three major rhubarb anthraquinones were
reported to have in vitro phototoxic. This re-evaluation of an old remedy
suggests that several bioactive anthraquinones of rhubarb possess promising
anti-cancer properties and could have a broad therapeutic potential. (c) 2006
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev.

PMID: 17022020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

33: Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Nov;6(11):1634-41. Epub 2006 May 22.

Macrophage activation by polysaccharide biological response modifier isolated
from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg.

Liu C, Leung MY, Koon JC, Zhu LF, Hui YZ, Yu B, Fung KP.

Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT,
Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.

A mannose-rich polysaccharide biological response modifier (BRM), derived from
Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg., was demonstrated to be a potent murine
B- and T-cell stimulator in our previous study. We here report the stimulatory
activity of PAC-I on murine peritoneal macrophage. The polysaccharide when
injected into mice enhanced the migration of macrophages to the peritoneal
cavity. Peritoneal macrophage when treated by PAC-I in vitro had increased
expression of MHC-II and FcgammaR, and enhanced endocytosis, phagocytosis,
nitric oxide production, TNF-alpha secretion and tumor cell cytotoxicity. The
administration of PAC-I into allogeneic ICR mice stimulated systemic TNF-alpha
production in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged the survival of
tumor-bearing mice. PAC-I is thus a potent stimulator of murine macrophage and
the in vitro observed tumoricidal properties of activated macrophage might
account for the in vivo antitumor properties of PAC-I. Our research findings may
have therapeutic implications in tumor immunotherapy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16979117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2006 Jun;26(6):1170-2.

[Determination and analysis of trace element manganese and amino acids content
in aloe tea]

[Article in Chinese]

Dong SF, Liu J, Sun XL, Han LQ, Zhao WX.

The Jilin Military Medical College, Fourth Military Medical University, China.

The content of trace element manganese in aloe tea was determined by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry. The contents of 17 kinds of amino acids in aloe
tea were determined with amino acids instrumentation. The results showed that
there are comparatively rich manganese and amino acids in aloe tea. The content
of manganese in red tea is more than in green tea, and the dissolving ratio is
more than 50% in boiled water, and first dissolving ratio is more than second
dissolving ratio, which is more than third dissolving ratio. There are 7 kinds
of amino acids essential to human body, among which are comparatively high
aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine in aloe tea. It's outstanding
characteristic is comparatively high content of manganese in aloe health tea. It
has provided useful data for probing into the relationship between trace
elements and amino acids in aloe health tea and health care function.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16961260 [PubMed - in process]

35: Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(6):2, 7.

Treatment options for biochemical relief from pruritus.

Verhage MM.

Hyperbaric & Wound Care Associates, Aurora Health Care, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Publication Types:

PMID: 16948197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Acta Crystallograph Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006 Sep 1;62(Pt
9):899-901. Epub 2006 Aug 18.

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel plant type
III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone.

Morita H, Kondo S, Abe T, Noguchi H, Sugio S, Abe I, Kohno T.

Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida,
Tokyo 194-8511, Japan.

Pentaketide chromone synthase (PCS) from Aloe arborescens is a novel
plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the formation of
5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone from five molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant
PCS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop
vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1), with
unit-cell parameters a = 73.2, b = 88.4, c = 70.0 A, alpha = gamma = 90.0, beta
= 95.6 degrees . Diffraction data were collected to 1.6 A resolution using
synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16946474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Fen Zi Xi Bao Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 Feb;39(1):55-60.

[Ultracytochemical studies of aloin in Aloe arborescens leaves]

[Article in Chinese]

Liao HM, Shen ZG, Sheng XY, Hu ZH.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Northwest
University), Ministry of Education, Xi'an 710069.

Lead acetate precipitation method was used for ultracytochemical localization of
aloin. The processes of aloin production, transport and storage were studied by
transmission electron microscope. Results showed that aloin was produced in the
plastids of the assimilating tissue. The aloin was transported through the
plastid membrane to the surrounding endoplasmic reticulum and enveloped in the
vesicles by the endoplasmic reticulum elements, the vesicles approached and
later fused with the plasmalemma. Some vesicles of the plastid membrane directly
fused with the plasmalemma. The vesicles released their contents into the
apoplast through exocytosis, and finally reached the vascular bundle sheath by
apoplastic translocation. Aloin was transported to the internal tangential wall
of vascular bundle sheath cell through endoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and
reached the cytoplasm of aloin cell by means of plasmodesmata. Finally, aloin
was stored in the vacuoles of aloin cell.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16944572 [PubMed - in process]

38: Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;35(3):359-66.

Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium interaction in
the gastric microcirculation of Helicobacter pylori-infected rats.

Prabjone R, Thong-Ngam D, Wisedopas N, Chatsuwan T, Patumraj S.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
10330, Thailand.

This research was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on
leukocyte-endothelium in the gastric microcirculation of Helicobacter pylori (H.
pylori)-infected rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3
groups: control, H. pylori-infected, and A. vera-treated group (200 mg/kg b.w.,
twice daily). H. pylori-inoculation was induced in the rats by the
administration of H. pylori solution. Intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy
was used to examine leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules on the posterior
surface of stomach area on different periods after administration of A. vera.
Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level was measured in blood
collected at the end of experiment by using ELISA technique. The results showed
that in H. pylori-infected group on day 8, the leukocyte adhesion was
13.40+/-1.00 cells/100 microm vessel length and the TNF-alpha was 76.76+/-23.18
pg/ml, which increased significantly (p < 0.05), compared with the control group
(leukocyte adhesion(control) = 2.54+/-0.6 cells/100 microm vessel length and
TNF-alpha(control) = 9.92+/-2.62 pg/ml). Treatment with A. vera reduced the
leukocyte adhesion (5.5+/-0.5 cells/100 microm vessel length), and TNF-alpha
(26.31+/-6.38 pg/ml) significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. pylori enhanced
leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the posterior stomach area markedly. This
enhancement in leukocyte-endothelium interaction could be improved by the
treatment of A. vera, associated with reduction in TNF-alpha level.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16899957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: J Agromedicine. 2006;11(1):49-58.

Personal dust exposures at a food processing facility.

Lacey SE, Conroy LM, Forst LS, Franke JE, Wadden RA, Hedeker DR.

University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, Division of
Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
[email protected]

A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food
processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure
information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a
series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed
within a larger warehouse-type facility. Workers were exposed to various fruit
and vegetable dusts during the grinding, sieving, mixing and packaging of
freeze-dried or air-dried products. Eight two-hour periods were monitored over
two days. Personal total suspended particulate samples were collected on 37 mm
PVC filters with 5 microm pore size according to National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 0500. The filters were analyzed
gravimetrically. The two-hour task sampling personal dust exposures ranged from
0.33-103 mg/m3. For each worker, an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA)
concentration was calculated, and these ranged from 3.08-59.8 mg/m3. Although
there are no directly appropriate occupational exposure limits that may be used
for comparison, we selected the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for particulates not
otherwise classified (PNOC) of 10 mg/m3 for inhalable particles. Neglecting the
respiratory protection used, five out of eight of the worker time-weighted
averages exceeded the TLV. It should be noted that the TLV is based on the
inhalable fraction and in this study total suspended particulate was measured;
additionally, the TLV is applicable for dusts that are insoluble or poorly
soluble, and have low toxicity, which may have limited protective ability in
this case due to the irritant nature of certain dusts (e.g., jalapeno peppers,
aloe vera). Sieving resulted in significantly higher exposure than grinding and
blending. Measuring area concentrations alone in this environment is not a
sufficient method of estimating personal exposures due to work practices for
some operations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 16893837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2006 Aug 7;2:31.

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia,

Lans C, Turner N, Brauer G, Lourenco G, Georges K.

University of Victoria, Environmental Science, British Columbia, V8W 3P5,
Canada. [email protected]

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine
used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada).
These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both
involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little
research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is
widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained
through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys,
grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British
Columbia (BC). A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive
literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In
all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97
in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in
Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper.
Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas.
More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed
were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and
Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies
reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

PMID: 16893454 [PubMed - in process]

41: Drug Deliv. 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):323-30.

Preparation and characterization of oxybenzone-loaded gelatin microspheres for
enhancement of sunscreening efficacy.

Patel M, Jain SK, Yadav AK, Gogna D, Agrawal GP.

Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr.
Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar, India.

The objective of our present study was to prepare and evaluate gelatin
microspheres of oxybenzone to enhance its sunscreening efficacy. The gelatin
microspheres of oxybenzone were prepared by emulsion method. Process parameters
were analyzed to optimize the formulation. The in vitro drug release study was
performed in pH 7.4 using cellulose acetate membrane. Microspheres prepared
using oxybenzone:gelatin ratio of 1:6 showed slowest drug release and those
prepared with oxybenzone:gelatin ratio of 1:2 showed fastest drug release. The
gelatin microspheres of oxybenzone were incorporated in aloe vera gel. Sun
exposure method using sodium nitroprusside solution was used for in vitro
sunscreen efficacy testing. The formulation C5 containing oxybenzone-bearing
gelatin microspheres in aloe vera gel showed best sunscreen efficacy. The
formulations were evaluated for skin irritation test in human volunteers, sun
protection factor, and minimum erythema dose in albino rats. These studies
revealed that the incorporation of sunscreening agent-loaded microspheres into
aloe vera gel greatly increased the efficacy of sunscreen formulation more than
four times.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16877306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jan 4;43(1):352-7. Epub 2006 Jul 27.

Rapid separation and determination of structurally related anthraquinones in
Rhubarb by pressurized capillary electrochromatography.

Lu H, Wang J, Wang X, Lin X, Wu X, Xie Z.

The Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety (Fuzhou
University), Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) with monolithic column has
been developed for the rapid separation and determination of five structurally
related anthraquinones in Rhubarb. The possibility of rapid separation resulted
from the unique pore structure with high permeability and favorable mass
transfer characteristics of the monolithic stationary phase. The effect factors
such as organic modifier, acidity and concentration of running buffer,
separation voltage were investigated to acquire the optimum condition. In the
220 nm wavelengths, the five anthraquinones could be baseline-separated rapidly
within 5 min with the separation voltage of -20 kV in 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer
(pH 6.2) containing 65% acetonitrile. The calibration graphs of rhein,
aloe-emodin, emodin chrysophanol and physcion were linear by plotting the peak
area against the analytes concentration over the range of 0.2-65, 0.1-30,
0.1-55, 0.5-30 and 0.5-55 microg/mL, respectively. The detection limits of five
anthraquinones were ranged from 0.06 to 0.2 microg/mL and the recoveries of
Rhubarb samples were about 81.3-86.4% (R.S.D.< or = 5.2%). This proposed method
was successfully applied to determination of the five analytes in Rhubarb with
satisfactory results.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16875795 [PubMed - in process]

43: J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006 Apr-May;8(3):281-6.

PTP1B inhibitors from Saussrurea lappa.

Li S, An TY, Li J, Shen Q, Lou FC, Hu LH.

Department of Phytochemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038,

A new lignan glycoside, named
1,5-dihydroxypinoresinol-4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from
the EtOH extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa, together with twenty known
compounds: (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2),
fraxiresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3),
(-)-olivil-4''-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4),
4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxybenzene-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, syringin,
costunolide-15-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, chlorogenic acid,
aloe-emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), rhein-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
(6), chrysophanol (7), emodin, dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, beta-costic
acid, reynosin, arbusculin A, alpha-cyclocostunolide, beta-cyclocostunolide,
santamarine and magnolialide. Three anthraquinones (5-7) showed moderate
bioactivity against human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B) in vitro.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16864436 [PubMed - in process]

44: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jan 4;43(1):66-72. Epub 2006 Jul 18.

Simultaneous determination of eight active components in Chinese medicine
'YIQING' capsule using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Qu H, Ma Y, Yu K, Cheng Y.

Department of Chinese Medicine Science and Engineering, College of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

An effective, accurate and reliable method for the simultaneous separation and
determination of eight active components (berberine, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin,
chrysophanol, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin) in Chinese medicine 'YIQING'
capsule was developed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography
(RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detection. The chromatographic separation was
performed on a Lichrospher C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. with 5.0 microm
particle size) with a simple linear gradient elution programme. Due to the
different UV characteristic of these components, three detection wavelengths
were utilized for the quantitative analysis (UV wavelength 254 nm for
anthraquinone derivatives, 278 nm for flavones compounds, and 345 nm for
protoberberine alkaloids, respectively). Excellent linear behaviors over the
investigated concentration ranges were observed with the values of R2 higher
than 0.99 for all the analytes. The recoveries, measured at three concentration
levels, varied from 94.9% to 105.3%. The validated method was successfully
applied to the simultaneously determination of these active components in
'YIQING' capsules from different production batches.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16846714 [PubMed - in process]

45: Se Pu. 2006 Jan;24(1):42-5.

[Preparative separation of aloin diastereoisomers by high-speed countercurrent
chromatography combined with silica gel column chromatography]

[Article in Chinese]

Huang D, Cao X, Zhao H, Dong Y.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, School of
Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business
University, Beijing 100037, China.

Aloin, naturally a mixture of two diastereoisomers, aloin A and aloin B, is the
major anthraquinone in aloe, and now served as one of the important control
constituents in most of the commercial aloe products. High-speed countercurrent
chromatography (HSCCC) combined with silica gel column chromatography was
developed for the preparative separation of the two individual aloins. Aloin A
(98%) and aloin B (96%) were obtained. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry
(FAB-MS), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and GOESY (gradient-enhanced
nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) were employed for the elucidation of
their structure conformation. The developed method is of high preparative
capacity and high efficiency in resolution.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16827309 [PubMed - in process]

46: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Jul;29(7):1418-22.

Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic

Tanaka M, Misawa E, Ito Y, Habara N, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, Toida T, Hayasawa H,
Takase M, Inagaki M, Higuchi R.

Biochemical Research Laboratory, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd, Kanagawa,
Japan. [email protected]

The genus Aloe in the family Liliaceae is a group of plants including Aloe vera
(Aloe barbadensis MILLER) and Aloe arborescens (Aloe arborescens MILLER var.
natalensis BERGER) that are empirically known to have various medical
efficacies. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of
Aloe vera gel and isolated a number of compounds from the gel. On the basis of
spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as lophenol,
24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and
24-methylene-cycloartanol. These five phytosterols were evaluated for their
anti-hyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic BKS.Cg-m(+/+)Lepr(db/J) (db/db)
mice. In comparison with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of vehicle-treated
mice, statistically significant decreases of 15 to 18% in HbA1c levels were
observed in mice treated with 1 mug of the five phytosterols. Considering the
ability to reduce blood glucose in vivo, there were no differences between the
five phytosterols. Administration of beta-sitosterol did not reduce the blood
glucose levels in db/db mice. After administration of the five phytosterols for
28 d, fasting blood glucose levels decreased to approximately 64%, 28%, 47%,
51%, and 55% of control levels, respectively. Severe diabetic mice treated with
phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel did not suffer weight reduction due to
glucose loss in the urine. These findings suggest that Aloe vera gel and
phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel have a long-term blood glucose level
control effect and would be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

PMID: 16819181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Phytochemistry. 2006 Jul;67(14):1486-92. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe
greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae).

Human H, Nicolson SW.

Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road,
Pretoria 0002, South Africa. [email protected]

Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee
plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and
analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid
composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types
of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water
(13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a
resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8%
dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than
the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of
tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh
pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to
compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16808932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: J Drugs Dermatol. 2006 Jun;5(6):512-7.

Immune protection, natural products, and skin cancer: is there anything new
under the sun?

Aboutalebi S, Strickland FM.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
Amarillo, TX, USA.

Non-melanoma skin cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell
carcinoma are the most common types of human neoplasms, representing one third
of all new malignancies diagnosed in the US. The number of new cases diagnosed
per year in the US alone is approaching one million and continues to rise.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is a major cause of non-melanoma skin
cancer in humans. Aside from the mutagenic effects of UV radiation, there are
suggestions from clinical studies and evidence in animal models that the immune
system plays an important role in preventing skin cancer development and
progression, and is suppressed by cutaneous exposure to UV radiation. In this
article, we review the research on new and existing agents that are being
developed to protect the skin immune response from suppression by UV radiation.
We also discuss the current state of knowledge regarding their mechanism of
action in humans as well as animal models of photosuppression, and their
efficacy in cancer prevention.

Publication Types:

PMID: 16774102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: J Dairy Sci. 2006 Jul;89(7):2539-41.

Short communication: disinfectant containing a complex of skin conditioners.

Fox LK, Gradle C, Dee A.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman 99164, USA.
[email protected]

The efficacies of 2 new teat dip formulations were tested against experimental
challenge by contagious mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and
Streptococcus agalactiae over a 12-wk period. Formulations contained an iodine
complex (0.5 or 1.0% iodine) and skin conditioning agents (propylene glycol,
polyvinylpyrridone, glycerine, lanolin, allantoin, and aloe). Percentage
reduction (dipped vs. control mammary quarters) in new contagious mastitis
pathogen intramammary infections for the 0.5 and 1.0% iodine dips was 65.4 and
84.5, respectively. Both dips were significantly effective in reducing new
contagious intramammary infections. Teat skin scores and teat end scores varied
over time but were virtually identical for both treated and control teats, for
both treatments. Thus, both dips were effective in reducing new contagious
mastitis infections without untoward effects on teat skin condition.

PMID: 16772572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Sep;60(9):1080-6. Epub 2006 Jun 2.

Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable
bowel syndrome.

Davis K, Philpott S, Kumar D, Mendall M.

St Georges Hospital Medical School, London, UK.

Aloe vera (AV) is suggested to be beneficial in treating irritable bowel
syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but no scientific trials exist to confirm this. We aim
to assess the efficacy of AV on IBS in refractory secondary care patients.
Patients with IBS were randomised to receive AV or matching placebo for a month.
Symptoms were assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months. Fifty-eight patients
randomised, 49 completed the protocol to 1 month and 41 to 3 months. Eleven of
thirty-one (35%) AV patients, and 6 of 27 (22%) placebo patients responded at 1
month (p = 0.763). Diarrhoea predominant patients showed a trend towards a
response to treatment at 1 month (10/23 V 2/14, p = 0.07). There was no evidence
that AV benefits patients with IBS. However, we could not rule out the
possibility that improvement occurred in patients with diarrhoea or alternating
IBS whilst taking AV. Further investigations are warranted in patients with
diarrhoea predominant IBS, in a less complex group of patients.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16749917 [PubMed - in process]

51: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 31;54(11):3882-6.

Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table

Serrano M, Valverde JM, Guillen F, Castillo S, Martinez-Romero D, Valero D.

Department of Food Technology, and Department of Applied Biology, EPSO,
University Miguel Hernandez, Ctra. Beniel km. 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante,

Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera
gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for
35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20
degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such
as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by
reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total
anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table
grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such
as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe
vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the
functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16719510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2006

An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis
(miller), Aloe vera.

Boudreau MD, Beland FA.

National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA.
[email protected]

Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera, has a long history of use as a topical and
oral therapeutic. The plant is the source of two products, gel and latex, which
are obtained from its fleshy leaves. Aloe vera products contain multiple
constituents with potential biological and toxicological activities, yet the
active components elude definition. Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with
diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug
interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema, and phototoxicity have
been reported from topical applications. This review examines the botany,
physical and chemical properties, and biological activities of the Aloe vera

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 16690538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Methods Mol Biol. 2006;318:179-85.

Micropropagation of endangered plant species.

Liao Z, Chen M, Sun X, Tang K.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences,
Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology Research and Development Center,
Morgan-Tan International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai,
P.R. China.

This chapter describes the multiple-shoot-based methods of micropropagation for
endangered plant species. Taxus and aloe are used here as examples. For Taxus,
the process of micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, elongating
shoots, rooting shoots, and transplanting plantlets. For aloe, the process of
micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, rooting shoots, and
transplanting plantlets.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16673915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2005 Dec;76(4):193-6.

Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) against ticks
on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs.

Fourie JJ, Fourie LJ, Horak IG.

Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339,
Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. [email protected]

The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) was
evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve
calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves
each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days
thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg/kg body weight and those in
another 25 mg/kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game
maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets.
Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the
fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were
ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no
effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six
dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days,
commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74
g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd
group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with
Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and + 7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days +
1 and + 8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after
tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas
on the dogs.

PMID: 16642714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD000978.

Comment in:
ACP J Club. 2006 Nov-Dec;145(3):75.
Evid Based Dent. 2006;7(4):104-5.
Evid Based Nurs. 2007 Jan;10(1):13.

Update of:
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD000978.

Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving

Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Eden OB.

School of Dentistry, University of Manchester, MANDEC, Higher Cambridge Street,
Manchester, UK, M15 6FH. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Treatment of cancer is increasingly more effective but is associated
with short and long-term side effects. Oral side effects remain a major source
of illness despite the use of a variety of agents to prevent them. One of these
side effects is oral mucositis (mouth ulcers). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the
effectiveness of prophylactic agents for oral mucositis in patients with cancer
receiving treatment, compared with other potentially active interventions,
placebo or no treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials
Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE
and EMBASE were searched. Reference lists from relevant articles were scanned
and the authors of eligible studies were contacted to identify trials and obtain
additional information.Date of most recent searches: April 2004. SELECTION
CRITERIA: Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: design -
random allocation of participants; participants - anyone with cancer receiving
chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment for cancer; interventions - agents
prescribed to prevent oral mucositis; outcomes - prevention of mucositis, pain,
amount of analgesia, dysphagia, systemic infection, length of hospitalisation,
cost and patient quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information
regarding methods, participants, interventions and outcome measures and results
were independently extracted, in duplicate, by two review authors. Authors were
contacted for details of randomisation and withdrawals and a quality assessment
was carried out. The Cochrane Oral Health Group statistical guidelines were
followed and risk ratios (RR) calculated using random-effects models. MAIN
RESULTS: Two hundred and two studies were eligible. One hundred and thirty two
were excluded for various reasons, usually as there was no useable information
on mucositis. Of the 71 useable studies all had data for mucositis comprising
5217 randomised patients. Interventions evaluated were: acyclovir, allopurinol
mouthrinse, aloe vera, amifostine, antibiotic pastille or paste, benzydamine,
beta carotene, calcium phosphate, camomile, chlorhexidine, clarithromycin,
folinic acid, glutamine, GM-CSF, honey, hydrolytic enzymes, ice chips, iseganan,
keratinocyte GF, misonidazole, oral care, pentoxifylline, povidone, prednisone,
propantheline, prostaglandin, sucralfate, traumeel and zinc sulphate. Of the 29
interventions included in trials, 10 showed some evidence of a benefit (albeit
sometimes weak) for either preventing or reducing the severity of mucositis.
Interventions where there was more than one trial in the meta-analysis finding a
significant difference when compared with a placebo or no treatment were:
amifostine which provided minimal benefit in preventing moderate and severe
mucositis RR = 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.95) and 0.60 (95% CI
0.37 to 0.97), antibiotic paste or pastille demonstrated a moderate benefit in
preventing mucositis RR = 0.87 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.97), hydrolytic enzymes reduced
moderate and severe mucositis with RRs = 0.52 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.74) and 0.17
(95% CI 0.06 to 0.52), and ice chips prevented mucositis at all levels RR = 0.63
(95% CI 0.44 to 0.91), 0.43 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.81), 0.27 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.68).
Other interventions showing some benefit with only one study were: benzydamine,
calcium phosphate, honey, oral care protocols, povidone and zinc sulphate.The
number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient experiencing moderate or
severe mucositis over a baseline incidence of 60% for amifostine is 10 (95% CI 7
to 33), antibiotic paste or pastille 13 (95% CI 8 to 56), hydrolytic enzyme 4
(95% CI 3 to 6) and ice chips 5 (95% CI 3 to 19). When the baseline incidence is
40%/90% the NNTs for amifostine are 16/7, for antibiotic paste or pastille 19/7,
for hydrolytic enzyme 5/3 and for ice chips 7/3.The general reporting of RCTs
was poor. However, the assessments of the quality of the randomisation improved
when the authors provided additional information. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Several
of the interventions were found to have some benefit at preventing or reducing
the severity of mucositis associated with cancer treatment. The strength of the
evidence was variable and implications for practice include consideration that
benefits may be specific for certain cancer types and treatment. There is a need
for well designed and conducted trials with sufficient numbers of participants
to perform subgroup analyses by type of disease and chemotherapeutic agent.

Publication Types:

PMID: 16625538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Sep;88 Suppl 4:S173-6.

Efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention and treatment of sunburn and suntan.

Puvabanditsin P, Vongtongsri R.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. [email protected]

The efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention of burn and tan from ultraviolet
were studied in 20 volunteers. The minimal erythema dose of 20 volunteers were
tested. The mean MED was 40-60 mj. The well preserved containing 70% of aloe
vera cream. The aloe vera cream was applied randomized double blind technique on
the test sites 30 minutes before, immediately after, or both before and after
then the serial ultraviolet UVB 40,50,60,70,80 mj were radiated. MED reading at
24 hour for sunburn evaluation. Erythema and pigmentation were evaluated by
visual grading 1-4 score. The aloe vera cream was continuing applied at the test
sites twice daily for the the next three weeks. The results showed that the aloe
vera cream has no sunburn or suntan protection and no efficacy in sunburn
treatment when compared to placebo. The aloe vera cream has no bleaching effect

Publication Types:
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 16623024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Lasers Med Sci. 2006 Jul;21(2):82-5. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Incidence of acneform reactions after laser hair removal.

Carter JJ, Lanigan SW.

The Birmingham Skin Centre, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham,
B18 7QH, UK.

There have been several studies published on the side effects of laser hair
removal, but none specifically looked at acneform reactions. The aim of this
study is to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence of acneform reactions
after laser hair removal in relation to skin type, laser type, site of
treatment, polycystic ovarian syndrome history (PCOS), age, and sex of the
patient. This is a multi-centre prospective study of patients presenting for
laser hair removal. Data were gathered using a questionnaire completed by the
staff who performed the treatment. The incidence of acneform reactions was 6%.
The following variables showed a statistically significant effect on the
percentage of patients with reactions: age, with younger patients more likely to
develop lesions; those treated with the Nd:YAG laser type were more likely to
develop lesions than those treated with the alexandrite; and the Fitzpatrick
skin type V showed the highest incidence of acneform lesions, followed by skin
types II and IV. History of PCOS, number of prior treatments, use of aloe vera
cooling gel, and the sex of the patient had no apparent effect on the incidence
of acneform lesions. Acneform reactions are relatively common after laser hair
removal; however, in the majority of cases, the severity of the reaction was
mild and lasted for a short duration.

Publication Types:
Multicenter Study

PMID: 16612673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr 7;12(13):2034-9.

Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes,
cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats.

Eamlamnam K, Patumraj S, Visedopas N, Thong-Ngam D.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
10330, Thailand.

AIM: To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric
microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. METHODS:
Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n=48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as
control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4
as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera. The rats from
each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence,
TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after
induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. RESULTS: On day 1 after induction
of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was
significantly (P<0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the
control group. The level of TNF-alpha was elevated and the level of IL-10 was
reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera, leukocyte
adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated,
but the level of TNF-alpha had no significant difference. On day 8, the
leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-alpha were
still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without
treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte
adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-alpha level. The level of IL-10 was
still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore,
histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of
gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the
ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric
inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric
glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer
group without treatment. CONCLUSION: Administration of 20% acetic acid can
induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary
venule and TNF-alpha level and reduce IL-10 level. Aloe vera treatment can
reduce leukocyte adherence and TNF-alpha level, elevate IL-10 level and promote
gastric ulcer healing.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16610053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash DC). 2006 Mar-Apr;46(2):161-7.

Use of herbs and herbal products by Hispanics in south Florida.

Ortiz BI, Clauson KA.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern
University-West Palm Beach, FL, USA.

OBJECTIVES: To provide insight into the use of herbs by Hispanic Americans,
identify specific herbal products that health care professionals should inquire
about in this population, and assess information sources and expenditures.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: South Florida. PARTICIPANTS:
Convenience sample of 200 Hispanic adults. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed
a descriptive, self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specific herbs
and herbal remedies use, monthly expenditures, sources of information, and
attitudes and beliefs regarding herbs. RESULTS: Of the 200 surveys that were
distributed, 142 were completed for a response rate of 71%. Of the respondents,
75% reported using at least one herb in the last 12 months. Women between 25 and
34 years of age were most likely to be herb users (P = .001), while men in that
age group were the least likely (P = .013). Chamomile (58.5%) and aloe vera
(45.3%) were used most frequently. Two frequently used herbs--linden (35.8%) and
star anise (33.0%)--are ones that are generally not well known to health care
professionals. Family tradition (36%) and safety (17%) were the major reasons
for use of herb/herbal remedies. Participants most commonly reported spending 25
dollars or less per month for herbs and herbal products. CONCLUSION: Hispanics
in south Florida reported using herbs and herbal products at a higher rate than
that those reported previously for the general population of the United States.
While money spent on herbs and herbal products was generally minimal, study
participants had a disconcerting level of confidence in the safety and efficacy
of herbal products.

PMID: 16602226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Biotechnol Prog. 2006 Mar-Apr;22(2):577-83.

Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant

Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M.

Nanoscience Group, Materials Chemistry Division, Biochemical Sciences Division,
National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008, India.

Biogenic gold nanotriangles and spherical silver nanoparticles were synthesized
by a simple procedure using Aloe vera leaf extract as the reducing agent. This
procedure offers control over the size of the gold nanotriangle and thereby a
handle to tune their optical properties, particularly the position of the
longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. The kinetics of gold nanotriangle
formation was followed by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy and transmission
electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of reducing agent concentration in the
reaction mixture on the yield and size of the gold nanotriangles was studied
using transmission electron microscopy. Monitoring the formation of gold
nanotriangles as a function of time using TEM reveals that multiply twinned
particles (MTPs) play an important role in the formation of gold nanotriangles.
It is observed that the slow rate of the reaction along with the shape directing
effect of the constituents of the extract are responsible for the formation of
single crystalline gold nanotriangles. Reduction of silver ions by Aloe vera
extract however, led to the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles of 15.2
nm +/- 4.2 nm size.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16599579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Phytother Res. 2006 Apr;20(4):288-93.

Lipid lowering activity of hydrosoluble chitosan and association with Aloe vera
L. and Brassica olearaceae L.

Geremias R, Pedrosa RC, Locatelli C, de Favere VT, Coury-Pedrosa R, Laranjeira

Pharmacy Department, Extremo Sul Catarinense University, Criciuma, Santa
Catarina, Brazil.

The lipid lowering activity of chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or
hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. has been studied in rats. In
this study, rats were submitted to different treatments with hydrosoluble
chitosan alone (4% diet), hydrosoluble chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or
hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. (1:4, 4% diet) for 35 days, to
identify the formula with the highest hypolipaemic potential. The results showed
that all treatments reduced blood lipid levels but that hydrosoluble chitosan
associated with Brassica olearaceae L. proved most efficient, because it
decreased the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and
triglycerides in blood serum. The overall results suggest that the hydrosoluble
chitosan/Brassica olearaceae L. association is a therapeutic alternative for
hyperlipidaemia, and in this way may contribute to the prevention of atherogenic
processes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16557611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Immunol Lett. 2006 Jun 15;105(2):101-14. Epub 2006 Mar 3.

Polysaccharide biological response modifiers.

Leung MY, Liu C, Koon JC, Fung KP.

Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin,
N.T., Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune
response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by
immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and
photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be
nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or polysaccharide in
nature. The receptors for these exogeneous BRMs are pattern recognition
receptors. The binding of exogeneous BRMs to pattern recognition receptors
triggers immune response. Exogenous BRMs have been reported to have anti-viral,
anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, and anti-tumor activities. Among
different exogeneous BRMs, polysaccharide BRMs have the widest occurrence in
nature. Some polysaccharide BRMs have been tested for their therapeutic
properties in human clinical trials. An overview of current understandings of
polysaccharide BRMs is summarized in this review.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16554097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Dec;30(24):1944-6.

[Effect of Aloe coarse polysaccharide on cytokine secretion of keratinocytes in

[Article in Chinese]

Chen XD, Wu BY, Jiang Q, Huang LY, Wang ZC.

Provincial Burts Institute, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou
350001, China. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Aloe coarse polysaccharide on the levels of
growth factors (EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1) and interleukins (IL-1beta, IL-6,
IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in cultured keratinocytes. METHOD: The
cultured keratinocytes were treated with Aloe coarse polysaccharide at
concentrations of 75, 150, 300, 600, 1 200 mg x L(-1) land the equal volume of
media as control group. The levels of EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6,
IL-8 and TNF in the supernatants of cultured keratinocytes were assayed by
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULT:
Compared with the control group, the levels of EGF, TGF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6
and IL-8 were significantly increased by treatment with Aloe coarse
polysaccharide (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and in a dose dependent manner, and the
levels of TGF-beta1 and TNF were also increased but no statistical significance.
CONCLUSION: Aloe coarse polysaccharide may promote keratinocytes to secrete EGF,
TGF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16494031 [PubMed - in process]

64: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Mar;33(3):232-7.

Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats
with streptozotocin diabetes.

Rajasekaran S, Ravi K, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Guindy
Campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The effect of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The
association of hyperglycaemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a
major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Many secondary plant
metabolites have been reported to possess lipid-lowering properties. The present
study was designed to examine the potential anti-hyperlipidaemic efficacy of the
ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced
diabetic rats. 2. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300
mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days
resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, hepatic
transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), plasma
and tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and
phospholipids and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. 3. In addition,
the decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and
increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein-and very low-density
lipoprotein-cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels
following treatment with the extract. 4. The fatty acid composition of the liver
and kidney was analysed by gas chromatography. The altered fatty acid
composition in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats was restored following
treatment with the extract. 5. Thus, the results of the present study provide a
scientific rationale for the use of Aloe vera as an antidiabetic agent.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16487267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2005 Dec;21(6):430-3.

[Influence of polysaccharide from Aloe vera on the proliferation of the human
epithelial cells cultured in vitro]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen XD, Wu BY, Jiang Q, Wang SB, Huang LY, Wang ZC.

Provincial Burns Institute, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou
350001, P. R. China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of polysaccharide from Aloe Vera (AP) on
the proliferation of the human epithelial cells cultured in vitro. METHODS: The
human epithelial cells undergoing 3 to 4 passages of confluence culture were
randomly divided into control and 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L AP groups
according to different dosage of the polysaccharide (AP) added into the culture
medium. In the control group (C), equal volume of DK-SFM medium was added to the
culturing cells. The conjugation time of epithelial cells, the changes in the
cell morphology and ultrastructure were observed under inverted phase contrast
microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The cell
proliferation was measured by MTT, cell count analysis and [(3)H]-TdR
incorporation. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to detect the cell cycle.
The leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was assayed for the evaluation
of the epithelial cell injury. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in
the morphology of the epithelial cells among the groups under inverted phase
contrast microscope. But under the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the
cells in 100 to 400 mg/L AP groups were seen to have proliferated actively, with
euchromatin dominant in the nuclei, while heterochromatin was dominant in the
cellular nucleus in control and 25 mg/L AP groups. The confluence time of
epithelial cells in 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/L AP groups (154 +/- 12, 141 +/- 20,
130 +/- 19, 124 +/- 13) h preceded noticeably than that in control group (182
+/- 8) h, (P < 0.01). The cell proliferation in 100, 200, 400 mg/L groups
reached the peak on the 5th day after AP treatment, while that in control and
other groups was delayed by 1 to 2 days. The survival rate of the cells in 25 to
400 mg/L AP groups increased dramatically compared with that in control group,
with its [(3)H]-TdR incorporation levels significantly increased in a dose
dependent manner. The leakage rate of LDH in 200 and 400 mg/L AP groups was
lower than that in control group (P < 0.01). The flow cytometric analysis of the
cell cycle distribution revealed that the percentage of cell cycle from phase
G0/G1 to G2/M and S in 25 to 400 mg/L AP groups increased significantly in a
dose dependent manner compared with that in control group (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: AP might be beneficial to the protection of epithelial cells by
promoting cell proliferation through inducing the progression of epidermal cells
from phase G0/G1 into G2/M and S phases.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16480623 [PubMed - in process]

66: Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Feb;32(1):73-8.

Silicate improves growth and ion absorption and distribution in aloe vera under
salt stress.

Xu CX, Liu YL, Zheng QS, Liu ZP.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095,

Si 2.0 mmol/L in irrigation solution alleviated significantly the inhibition of
NaCl stress of 100 or 200 mmol/L to aloe growth. Exogenously applied Si
decreased significantly Na(+) and Cl(-) contents, increased K(+) content and
K(+)/Na(+) ratio and selectivity ratio of absorption (AS(K, Na)) and of
translocation (TS(K, Na)) to K(+) and Na(+) in aloe plant under both NaCl 100
and 200 mmol/L stresses for 30 d. In this way, the ion homeostasis in aloe plant
under NaCl stress was maintained, as was proved by X-ray microanalysis of root
tip and leaf across sections. One of the mechanisms to achieve this may be the
significant enhancement of H(+)-ATPase activities by the addition of silicate in
plasma membrane and tonoplast, H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) activity in
tonoplast isolated from aloe root tips under NaCl stress.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16477134 [PubMed - in process]

67: J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Feb;106(2):227-37.

Survey of herbal use by Kansas and Wisconsin WIC participants reveals moderate,
appropriate use and identifies herbal education needs.

Lohse B, Stotts JL, Priebe JR.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University
Park 16802, USA. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To examine herbal use by a sample of low-income, nutritionally
vulnerable children. DESIGN: Caregivers completed a survey of child and
caregiver herbal usage practices. SUBJECTS/SETTING: A convenience sample of
2,562 caregivers to children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition
Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Kansas and Wisconsin who were
attending a WIC clinic was selected. WIC project selection was random, with
stratification for geographic and ethnic representation. STATISTICAL ANALYSES
PERFORMED: Herbal usage profiles were described with measures of central
tendency. Groups were compared with a two-tailed independent t test and chi2 for
continuous and categorical variables, respectively. RESULTS: Child herbal use
was reported on 917 surveys, representing 1,363 children ranging in age from 1
week to 17.5 years; 820 were younger than age 5 years. Herb use was greater
among Latino children (48.4% vs 31.4%) and caregivers (43.4% vs 37.2%).
Caregivers had a mean age of 27.8+/-8.32 years and 38.8% (n=994) denoted using
herbs. Herbs most commonly used by children were aloe vera, chamomile, garlic,
peppermint, lavender, cranberry, ginger, echinacea, and lemon. Reasons for
herbal use paralleled recommendations. Family (78.9%) and friends (32.9%) were
predominant information sources. Herbs with safety issues, such as St John's
wort, dong quai, and kava were used. Herbal use characteristics did not differ
between states, but were unique for Latino clients. CONCLUSIONS: Herbal use by
WIC children is mostly congruent with known indications; however, practices with
potential to harm urge herbal education in WIC clinics, especially for Latinos.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 16442871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Feb 1;23(3):341-9.

Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel

Langmead L, Rampton DS.

Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospitals, NHS
Foundation Trust, London, UK. [email protected]

Complementary and alternative medicine includes a wide range of practices and
therapies outside the realms of conventional western medicine. Despite a lack of
scientific data in the form of controlled trials for either efficacy or safety
of complementary and alternative medicine, use by patients with inflammatory
bowel disease, particularly of herbal therapies, is widespread and increasing.
There is limited controlled evidence indicating efficacy of traditional Chinese
medicines, aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata and bovine
colostrum enemas in ulcerative colitis. Encouraging results have also been
reported in small studies of acupuncture for Crohn's disease and ulcerative
colitis. Contrary to popular belief, natural therapies are not necessarily safe:
fatal hepatic and irreversible renal failure have occurred with some
preparations and interactions with conventional drugs are potentially dangerous.
There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy
of complementary and alternative approaches in inflammatory bowel disease,
together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16422993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):343-7.

Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells through the p53
dependent apoptotic pathway.

Lin JG, Chen GW, Li TM, Chouh ST, Tan TW, Chung JG.

School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taiwan, Republic of China.

PURPOSE: We investigated the anticancer effect of AE
(1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) in the T24 human bladder cancer
cell line (Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan) by
studying apoptosis regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AE, which is purified from
aloe vera leaves, has been reported to have antitumor activity. Cell viability,
cell cycle and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometric methods. Levels of
cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and other enzyme were examined by Western
blotting methods. RESULTS: AE inhibited cell viability, and induced G2/M arrest
and apoptosis in T24 cells. AE increased the levels of Wee1 and cdc25c, and may
have led to inhibition of the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1,
which cause G2/M arrest. AE induced p53 expression and was accompanied by the
induction of p21 and caspase-3 activation, which was associated with apoptosis.
In addition, AE was associated with a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and
Bax expression but it inhibited Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: AE induced
apoptosis in T24 cells is mediated through the activation of p53, p21,
Fas/APO-1, Bax and caspase-3.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16406939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):468-77. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller
components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice:
investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe

Beppu H, Shimpo K, Chihara T, Kaneko T, Tamai I, Yamaji S, Ozaki S, Kuzuya H,
Sonoda S.

Fujita Memorial Nanakuri Institute, Fujita Health University, 1865 Isshiki-cho,
Hisai, Mie 514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of
Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent
injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes
mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe
arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne
from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood
glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were
examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at
the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a
fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf
skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood
sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there
was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at
the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf
and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis
and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and
38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05
ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group
relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test
materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of
rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed
in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe
in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following
forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption
kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe
phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa fraction powder and it was
found in the pancreas and liver in addition to in the blood serum. The above
results indicate that fore and aft when Sz injections could cause selective
toxicity to B cells of islets, the dietary administration of 10 KDa fraction
powder to mice would lead to the persistence of aloe phenol compound having an
antioxidant activity in the pancreas and blood, which could protect islets of
Langerhans from the destruction caused by methyl radical derived from Sz. The
results also suggested the possibility of the 10 KDa fraction powder to
alleviate the burden of insulin secretion as it has an inhibitory action on
glucose absorption in the jejunum of rats.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16406411 [PubMed - in process]

71: Contact Dermatitis. 2005 Dec;53(6):332-4.

Absence of contact sensitization to Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

Reider N, Issa A, Hawranek T, Schuster C, Aberer W, Kofler H, Fritsch P, Hausen

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Innsbruck,
Innsbruck, Austria. [email protected]

Aloe vera has been used as a cosmetic and medical remedy since ancient times and
has gained increasing popularity in recent years. Despite its widespread use,
reports of allergic reactions are rare. We patch tested 702 consecutive patients
with an oily extract from the leaves, Aloe pulvis from the entire plant and
concentrated Aloe vera gel. A specially designed questionnaire was used for the
use of Aloe vera, reasons and location of application, adverse reactions,
occupation, hobbies and atopy. None of the subjects showed any reaction to one
of the preparations. 2 components of the plant have to be distinguished: the
bark of the leaves contains anthrachinones with pro-peristaltic and potential
antibiotic and anticancer properties. Constraints have been imposed due to their
considerable toxic potential. Today, mostly the Aloe gel from the center of the
leaves is processed. It almost exclusively consists of carbohydrates to which
also many medical effects have been attributed. Carbohydrates are not likely to
induce contact sensitization, which might explain the outcome of our study.
However, this does not justify unrestrained promotion of Aloe products, as
scientific studies investigating the claims on its constitutional effects are
few in number, and the majority of them have been unable to diminish the
intuitive scepticism against miracle cures, like Aloe seems to be.

Publication Types:
Multicenter Study

PMID: 16364121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Phytomedicine. 2006 Jan;13(1-2):49-60. Epub 2005 Aug 18.

Inhibitory effects of aloe carboxypeptidase fraction on streptozotocin-induced
enhancement of vascular permeability in the pancreatic islets.

Beppu H, Shimpo K, Chihara T, Tamai I, Nomoto-Yamaji S, Ozaki S, Ito S, Kuzuya

Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, 1865
Isshiki-cho, Hisai, Mie 514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

The protective actions of components isolated from Aloe arborescens Miller var.
natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe in Japanese) on streptozotocin (Sz)-induced
necrosis of B cells in the pancreatic islets of the mouse were investigated to
clarify its action mechanism involved in anti-diabetic effects. In this
experiment, phenol low molecular weight components of aloin and aloin A that
were anti-oxidants and derived from the leaf skin or pulp extract, an aloe
carboxypeptidase fraction that is a inhibitor of enhanced vascular permeability
and a glycoprotein component that decreases blood glucose were tested with mice
precedently administered with Sz which is known as a cytotoxin specific to B
cells. The results showed that the treatment group receiving Sz followed by the
aloe carboxypeptidase fraction increased the inhibition of dye leakage by 75.8%
(p<0.001) in the extract of whole pancreas in comparison to the control group
and the aloe carboxypeptidase fraction group also increased the inhibition
effect by 68.4% (p<0.001) in the extract of pancreatic islets as compared to the
control group. The carboxypeptidase is an aloe-derived protease known to inhibit
the acetic acid-related enhancement of intraperitoneal vascular permeability in
mice. Further, the elevation of blood glucose in Sz-induced diabetic mice
intraperitoneally given the aloe carboxypeptitase fraction was significantly
(p<0.01-0.001) restrained at 3, 7 and 14 days after the injection as compared to
the control group given solvent only. The results of this experiment suggested
that the inhibitory effect on the enhancement of vascular permeability related
to the vascular acute inflammatory response at Sz-induced lesions of pancreatic
islets was involved in the action mechanism of this enzyme.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16360933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Se Pu. 2005 Sep;23(5):470-6.

[Screening of antineoplastic components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei using
chromatographic fingerprints]

[Article in Chinese]

Kong L, Bao Y, Yu Z, Li W, Chen X, Hu L, Zou H.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian
116023, China.

A new strategy for screening of antineoplastic components in the traditional
Chinese medicine of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been developed using
chromatographic fingerprints before and after metabolism by high performance
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolizing method was established
based on the in vitro metabolism by Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat liver homogenate. By
means of the metabolism methods in vitro, the antineoplastic activity of the
extracts, metabolites and components of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei were determined by
microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assays in vitro. It was observed that the
inhibition rate of the crude extract for HeLa cell was increased from 26.7% to
36.2% after 60 min of metabolism. The changes of activities resulted from the
changes of components' structures and the bioactive components were discovered
simultaneously in view of metabolism by inhibiting rate assay for the components
in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. It is concluded that the antineoplastic activity of
the crude extract from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was increased after in vitro
metabolism because the antineoplastic activity of aloe-emodin, the metabolite of
chrysophanol, is higher than its parent compounds.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16350788 [PubMed - in process]

74: Carbohydr Res. 2006 Feb 27;341(3):355-64. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

Novel bioactive maloyl glucans from aloe vera gel: isolation, structure
elucidation and in vitro bioassays.

Esua MF, Rauwald JW.

Wolfenbuetteler Strasse 25c, 30519 Hannover, and University of Leipzig,
Institute of Pharmacy, Leipzig, Germany. [email protected]

In this study, three novel maloyl glucans were isolated at temperatures below 15
degrees C from aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller). These compounds were
characterized using NMR spectroscopy, ESIMS, MALDITOF-MS and capillary
electrophoresis. The compounds were characterized as
6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha-,beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan A),
alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha,-beta,-D-Glcp (veracylglucan B) and
yl)-alpha,-beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan C). These unusual malic acid acylated
carbohydrates were then tested in vitro for effects on cell proliferation and
gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8 and ICAM-1, using
RT-PCR. Veracylglucan B demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and
anti-proliferative effects, while Veracylglucan C, on the other hand, exhibited
significant cell proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Veracylglucan A
could only be isolated in smaller quantities, and it proved to be very unstable.
Thus no biological effects could be observed in this respect. The in vitro
bioassays also indicated that Veracylglucan B and C are antagonistic and
competitive in their effects on cell proliferation. The results of this work
represent a major step forward in the research on aloe vera gel. This is the
first time that two fully chemically characterized compounds are shown to be
responsible for known biological activities of aloe vera gel.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 16343466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Winter;108(1-3):185-95.

Mineral contents of aloe vera leaf gel and their role on streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats.

Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Guindy
Campus, Chennai-600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

The role of some inorganic elements like vanadium, zinc, sodium, potassium,
calcium, copper, manganese, and traces of chromium in the improvement of
impaired glucose tolerance and their indirect role in the management of diabetes
mellitus are being increasingly recognized. In traditional methods, medicinal
plants are being used, which contain both organic and inorganic constituents. In
the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the inorganic elements
present in Aloe vera leaf gel and their role on diabetes-related biochemical
alterations in experimental rats. Special emphasis was given to the inorganic
parts by carefully preparing ash of the leaf gel. The results clearly indicate
the presence of several hypoglycemic-activity-possessing elements in the gel.
The ash treatment also resulted in hypoglycemic action. In conclusion, the
presence of various inorganic trace elements in the gel might account for the
hypoglycemic nature of the plant.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16327071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Dec 10;68(23-24):2227-38.

Effects of aloe, aloesin, or propolis on the pharmacokinetics of benzo[a]pyrene
and 3-OH-benzo[a]pyrene in rats.

Cao D, Yoon CH, Shin BS, Kim CH, Park ES, Yoo SD.

College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Changan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do,

This study was conducted to examine the effects of aloe and aloesin on the
weight gain and blood chemistry as well as the pharmacokinetics of
benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 3-OH-BaP in rats. The rats treated with multiple doses
of aloe and aloesin (100 mg/kg every 12 h for 14-19 d) did not show any
significant changes in the weight gain and blood biochemical parameters. In
addition, the effects of oral treatment with aloe, aloesin, and propolis on the
absorption and pharmacokinetics of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and its metabolite,
3-OH-BaP, were studied in rats. The treatment with a single oral dose (200
mg/kg) of aloe, aloesin, and propolis did not alter the concentration-time
profiles of BaP and 3-OH-BaP after iv and oral administration of BaP. At higher
oral doses (500 mg/kg), the biliary excretion of BaP and the urinary excretion
of 3-OH-BaP were significantly increased, but the urinary excretion of BaP and
the fecal excretion of 3-OH-BaP remained unaltered. Whether high doses of aloe
increase the overall elimination of BaP deserves further investigation.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16326436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Phytomedicine. 2005 Nov;12(10):760-5.

Effect of Aloe vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and

Vinson JA, Al Kharrat H, Andreoli L.

Department of Chemistry, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, 18510 4626, USA.
[email protected]

There are no literature references describing the effect of consumption of Aloe
vera liquid preparations on the absorption of water- or fat-soluble vitamins.
There is a very large population worldwide which consume vitamins and many
people also consume Aloe. Thus we report the effect of Aloe on the human
absorption of vitamins C and E, the most popular vitamin supplements. The plasma
bioavailability of vitamins C and E were determined in normal fasting subjects,
with eight subjects for vitamin C and ten subjects for vitamin E. In a random
crossover design, the subjects consumed either 500 mg of ascorbic acid or 420 mg
of vitamin E acetate alone (control), or combined with 2 oz of two different
Aloe preparations (a whole leaf extract, or an inner fillet gel). Blood was
collected periodically up to 24 h after consumption. Plasma was analyzed for
ascorbate and tocopherol by-HPLC with UV detection. There was no significant
difference in the areas under the plasma ascorbate-time curves among the groups
sincerely due to large differences within the groups. For comparative purposes
the control area was 100%. The Aloe Gel area was 304%, and Aloe Whole Leaf 80%.
Only Aloe Gel caused a significant increase in plasma ascorbate after 8 and 24
h. For vitamin E, the results for the relative areas were control 100%, Gel
369%, and Leaf (198%). Only the Aloes produced a significant increase in plasma
tocopherol after 6 and 8 h. Both Aloes were significantly different from the
control after 8 h. Aloe Gel was significantly different from the baseline after
24 h. The Aloes slowed down the absorption of both vitamins with maximum
concentrations 2-4 h later than the control. There was no difference between the
two types of Aloe. The results indicate that the Aloes improve the absorption of
both vitamins C and E. The absorption is slower and the vitamins last longer in
the plasma with the Aloes. Aloe is the only known supplement to increase the
absorption of both of these vitamins and should be considered as a complement to

Publication Types:
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16323295 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: J Sep Sci. 2005 Nov;28(16):2225-9.

Separation and determination of anthraquinones in Cassia obtusifolia
(Leguminosae) by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis.

Jiang TF, Lv ZH, Wang YH.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs (Ocean University of China), Ministry of
Education, China. [email protected]

An MEKC method was developed for the determination of the five pharmaceutically
important anthraquinones: chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (3),
aloe-emodinin (4), and rhein (5) in Cassia obtusifolia (Leguminosae). A buffer
solution (pH 9.00) composed of 20 mM sodium borate, 20 mM sodium deoxycholate
(DOC), and 15% ACN was found to be the most suitable electrolyte for this
separation. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (correlation
coefficients: 0.9993, 0.9992, 0.9996, 0.9989, and 0.9991) between the peak area
of each compound (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) and its concentration. The RSDs of
migration times and peak areas were <1.23 and 2.72% within 1 day, respectively.
The effects of pH value, surfactant (DOC) concentration, and organic modifier on
the migration were also studied. By this way, the contents of five
anthraquinones in the extracts of the seed of C. obtusifolia (Leguminosae) from
different sources were successfully determined within 14 min.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16318221 [PubMed - in process]

79: Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Feb 15;16(4):949-53. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

Isolation, structure elucidation, antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties
of two novel dihydrocoumarins from Aloe vera.

Zhang XF, Wang HM, Song YL, Nie LH, Wang LF, Liu B, Shen PP, Liu Y.

State Key laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species,
Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.

Two new dihydrocoumarin derivatives, compounds 1 and 2, were isolated from Aloe
vera. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallographic diffraction
analysis and extensive 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Both of them evidently
showed antioxidant activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Only 1
obviously exhibited immunomodulatory activity in relation to increasing the
phagocytic activity and stimulating the production of superoxide anions in the
oxygen respiratory burst of rat peritoneal macrophages.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16297615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005 Nov;11(4):224-31.

Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review.

Maddocks-Jennings W, Wilkinson JM, Shillington D.

Universal College of Learning (UCOL), Faculty of Health Sciences, Private Bag
11022, Palmerston North, New Zealand. [email protected]

Patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment will receive some degree of skin
damage. Internationally there are many preventative and treatment options
recommended, with varying degrees of evidence of success. This review explores
the possible benefits of various plant-based treatments within the context of
other novel treatments. The evidence suggests that using a hydrophilic substance
such as Aloe vera gel or vegetable oil that is high in essential fatty acids, is
as effective as mild steroid creams such as 1% hydrocortisone in reducing the
severity of reactions. Additionally with plant-based treatments there does not
appear to be side effects such as may occur with steroids. There remains great
scope for further studies either replicating some of these current studies or
exploring other options such as the use of essential oils or other herbal

Publication Types:

PMID: 16290892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD004983.

Wound cleansing for pressure ulcers.

Moore ZE, Cowman S.

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, 123 St
Stephens Green, Dublin, Ireland, Dublin 15. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (also called pressure sores, bed sores and decubitus
ulcers) are areas of tissue damage that occur in the very old, malnourished or
acutely ill, who cannot reposition themselves. Pressure ulcers impose a
significant financial burden on health care systems and negatively affect
quality of life. Wound cleansing is considered an important component of
pressure ulcer care. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to answer the
following question:What is the effect of wound cleansing solutions and wound
cleansing techniques on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers? SEARCH STRATEGY:
We searched the Specialised Trials Register of the Cochrane Wounds Group (up to
August 2005), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The
Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005). We searched bibliographies of relevant
publications retrieved. We contacted drug companies and experts in the field to
identify studies missed by the primary search. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound cleansing with no wound cleansing, or
different wound cleansing solutions, or different cleansing techniques, were
eligible for inclusion if they reported an objective measure of pressure ulcer
healing. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted data independently
and resolved disagreements through discussion and reference to the Cochrane
Wounds Group editorial base. A structured narrative summary of the included
studies was conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risk (RR), plus 95%
confidence intervals (CI) were calculated; for continuous outcomes, weighted
mean difference (WMD), plus 95% CI were calculated. Meta analysis was not
conducted, because of the small number of diverse RCTs identified. MAIN RESULTS:
No studies compared cleansing with no cleansing. Two studies compared different
wound cleansing solutions: a statistically significant improvement in Pressure
Sore Status Tool scores occurred for wounds cleansed with saline spray
containing Aloe vera, silver chloride and decyl glucoside (Vulnopur) compared to
isotonic saline (P value = 0.025), but no statistically significant change in
healing was seen when water was compared to saline (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.21,
41.89). One study compared cleansing techniques, but no statistically
significant change in healing was seen for ulcers cleansed with, or without, a
whirlpool (RR 2.10, 95% CI 0.93 to 4.76). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified
only three studies addressing cleansing of pressure ulcers. One noted a
statistically significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing for wounds
cleansed with saline spray containing Aloe vera, silver chloride and decyl
glucoside (Vulnopur) when compared with isotonic saline solution. Overall, there
is no good trial evidence to support use of any particular wound cleansing
solution or technique for pressure ulcers.

Publication Types:

PMID: 16235386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Jun;28(6):482-5.

[The modulating of aloe polysaccharides on the cell cycle and cycle regulating
protein expression in X-ray irradiated non-malignant cells]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang Z, Huang Z, Wu Q, Zhou J, Zhu X, Li Q, Liu Z.

Guangzhou University of TCM School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou.

OBJECTIVE: To study the modulating of Aloe Polysaccharides on the cell cycle and
cycle regulating protein expression in X-ray irradiated non-malignant cells.
METHODS: The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometric analyzed. The levels of
cell cycle regulating protein expression were tested by Western blot. RESULTS: A
distinct G2/M block happened in 293 and C. Liver cells after irradiation. The
pre-treatment of AP in the concentration of 50 microg/ml caused an increasing
G0/G1 phase population and decreasing G2/M phase population. Meanwhile,
pre-treatment of AP could significantly decrease the high expression of p53
protein caused by irradiation and evidently enhance the expression of P21,
Cyclin B1 and pRb protein. Pre-treatment of AP had no evident effect on p27,CDK4
and Cyclin D1 protein. CONCLUSION: There is a radioprotective effect of AP on
non-malignant cells. This effect is related to alleviating the cell cycle
turbulence. The modulating of Aloe Polysaccharides on the cell cycle regulating
protein expression in X-ray irradiated non-malignant cells contributes to its
alleviating effect on the cell cycle turbulence.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 16209264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Nov 12;68(21):1841-60.

Chemopreventive effects of aloe against genotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene.

Yoo EJ, Lee BM.

Division of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon,
Kyonggi-Do, Korea.

Chemopreventive effects of aloe against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mutagenicity were
investigated in the Salmonella typhimurium bacterial mutation assay, the
chromosome aberration assay using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the
mouse micronuclei test using bone-marrow cells. In the bacterial assay, aloe
produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the number of mutant colonies
induced by BaP. The chromosome-damaging responses of BaP in CHO cells were
abolished by treatment with aloe, approximately to the level seen in control. In
the in vivo mouse bone-marrow micronuclei test, pretreatment of aloe 24 h prior
to BaP treatment reduced the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic
erythrocytes. In the cells of CHO and bone marrow treated with aloe, glutathione
(GSH) levels were shown to be higher and extracellular discharge rate increased
as incubation time with aloe rose. MDR1 and MRP2 gene were more expressed in
Hepa c cells than in NTCC cells, but there was no change in BCRP gene
expression. The antimutagenic effects of aloe were statistically significant and
concentration dependent. These results demonstrated that aloe might exert
chemopreventive effects against BaP-induced mutagenicity.

PMID: 16207633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Oct 5;53(20):7807-13.

Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and

Valverde JM, Valero D, Martinez-Romero D, Guillen F, Castillo S, Serrano M.

Department of Food Technology, EPSO, University Miguel Hernandez, Ctra. Beniel
km. 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent
Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality
and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and
subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert
fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of
quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf
life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the
fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis
browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters
treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to
postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1
degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial
microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which
significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory
analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and
dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any
detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this
is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits,
which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application
and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16190634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: J AOAC Int. 2005 Jul-Aug;88(4):998-1007.

Quantitative determination of saccharides in dietary glyconutritional products
by anion-exchange liquid chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric

Eberendu AR, Booth C, Luta G, Edwards JA, McAnalley BH.

Mannatech, Inc., 600 South Royal Ln, Coppell, TX 75019, USA.
[email protected]

A new technique for the assay of carbohydrates is described in which separation
and quantification of neutral saccharides, aminosaccharides, glycuronic acids,
and disaccharides may be accomplished in less than 50 min of total run time.
This method involves optimized anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with
integrated pulse amperometric detection. Complex carbohydrates from various
sources, including dietary supplements, were hydrolyzed in a dilute solution of
trifluoroacetic acid, freeze-dried, and reconstituted in water containing
2-deoxygalactose as the internal standard. The solution was filtered and
separated on CarboPac PA20 column. The eluted saccharides were detected by
oxidation on a gold electrode with quadruple-pulsed integrated amperometry. The
calibration plots for the saccharides were linear with an average correlation
coefficient of 0.999. Method precision regarding peak retention time and
resolution used in the peak identifications was verified. With this method,
previously difficult-to-separate saccharides, such as galactosamine,
glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine, were successfully resolved from the
neutral saccharides rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose. Mannose was also
resolved from xylose, and de-acetylation of aminosaccharides prior to separation
was not necessary. This technique provides an accurate and efficient means to
assay carbohydrates in dietary supplements, which new federal regulations will
soon mandate.

PMID: 16152914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: Life Sci. 2006 Jan 2;78(6):622-30. Epub 2005 Sep 8.

Antioxidant properties and PC12 cell protective effects of APS-1, a
polysaccharide from Aloe vera var. chinensis.

Wu JH, Xu C, Shan CY, Tan RX.

Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical
Biotechnology, Nanjing University, PR China.

Through a combination of anion-exchange and repeated gel chromatographies, APS-1
was isolated from fresh leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berger (an
edible and medicinal plant widely cultivated and consumed in China) as a
principal polysaccharide composed of mannose and glucose (ca. 18:5) with its
molecular weight around 2.1 x 10(5). In a dose-dependent manner, APS-1 was
demonstrated to be free radical scavenging in superoxide and hydroxyl radical
assays, inhibitory to the copper-mediated oxidation of human low density
lipoprotein (LDL), and protective against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced
lesion to rat PC12 cell (pheochromocytoma cell line). The result suggested that
APS-1 could be of considerable preventive and therapeutic significance to some
free radical associated health problems such as coronary heart ailments,
Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Furthermore, the finding shed as well
fresh light helpful for a better understanding of the health-benefiting
potential of the edible plant consumed by the Chinese people for a couple of

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16150464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2005 Sep;17(6):478-84.

Aloe vera for preventing radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic
literature review.

Richardson J, Smith JE, McIntyre M, Thomas R, Pilkington K.

University of Plymouth, Devon, UK. [email protected]

AIM: To systematically review and critically appraise the evidence for
effectiveness of Aloe vera gel for radiation-induced skin reactions. MATERIALS
AND METHODS: Major biomedical databases and specialist complementary and
alternative medicine databases were searched. Additionally, efforts were made to
identify unpublished and ongoing research. Relevant research was systematically
categorised by study type and appraised according to study design. Clinical
commentaries were obtained for each study included in the review. RESULTS: One
earlier systematic review on Aloe vera for a variety of conditions was located.
Five published randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) were found, along with two
additional RCTs that are not published. No non-RCTs, uncontrolled studies or
qualitative studies were found. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence from clinical
trials to suggest that topical Aloe vera is effective in preventing or
minimising radiation-induced skin reactions in cancer patients. Further
methodologically rigorous, sufficiently powered research studies should be
conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of currently used and novel therapies
for the prevention, minimisation and management of radiation-induced skin

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16149293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88: J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Sep 14;127(36):12709-16.

Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: chain length control in an
octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase.

Abe I, Oguro S, Utsumi Y, Sano Y, Noguchi H.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE21 Program, University of Shizuoka,
52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. [email protected]

The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs)
produces a variety of plant secondary metabolites with remarkable structural
diversity and biological activities (e.g., chalcones, stilbenes, benzophenones,
acrydones, phloroglucinols, resorcinols, pyrones, and chromones). Here we
describe an octaketide-producing novel plant-specific type III PKS from aloe
(Aloe arborescens) sharing 50-60% amino acid sequence identity with other plant
CHS-superfamily enzymes. A recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli
catalyzed seven successive decarboxylative condensations of malonyl-CoA to yield
aromatic octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides known to be
synthesized by the structurally simple type III PKS. Surprisingly, site-directed
mutagenesis revealed that a single residue Gly207 (corresponding to the CHS's
active site Thr197) determines the polyketide chain length and product
specificity. Small-to-large substitutions (G207A, G207T, G207M, G207L, G207F,
and G207W) resulted in loss of the octaketide-forming activity and concomitant
formation of shorter chain length polyketides (from triketide to heptaketide)
including a pentaketide chromone, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methylchromone, and a
hexaketide pyrone, 6-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone,
depending on the size of the side chain. Notably, the functional diversity of
the type III PKS was shown to evolve from simple steric modulation of the
chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity accompanied by
conservation of the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. This provided novel strategies
for the engineered biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important plant polyketides.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16144421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Arch Med Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;36(5):608.

Aloe linked to thyroid dysfunction.

Pigatto PD, Guzzi G.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 16099348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 14;102(2):197-201. Epub 2005 Jul 27.

Assessment of Aloe vera (L.) genotoxic potential on Escherichia coli and plasmid

Paes-Leme AA, Motta ES, De Mattos JC, Dantas FJ, Bezerra RJ, Caldeira-de-Araujo

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto
Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, IBRAG, UERJ, Avenue 28
de Setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030, RJ, Brazil.

Aloe vera is a tropical plant, known in Brazil as babosa and several reputable
suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for topic use. Since people use Aloe
vera topically, they could be exposed to solar ultraviolet light in addition and
it might cause a cross damage effect between these agents. The aim of this work
was to investigate the biological effects of Aloe vera pulp extract, associated
or not to UVA radiation, on Escherichia coli-deficient repair mutants and
plasmid DNA, in order to test its genotoxic potential. Data obtained from
analysis of survival fractions, bacterial transformation and agarose gel
electrophoresis suggest that Aloe vera has genotoxic properties, but it seems
not to be able to damage the cell membrane.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16054315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Int J Radiat Biol. 2005 Mar;81(3):243-50.

Effects of dexpanthenol with or without Aloe vera extract on radiation-induced
oral mucositis: preclinical studies.

Dorr W, Schlichting S, Bray MA, Flockhart IR, Hopewell JW.

Radiobiology Laboratory, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology,
Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
[email protected]

PURPOSE: To define the effect of dexpanthenol with or without Aloe vera extract
on radiation-induced oral mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse tongue mucosal
ulceration was analysed as the clinically relevant endpoint. Graded single or
fractionated dose irradiation (10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks, graded test doses on day 14)
were combined with topical administration of dexpanthenol or a base, with or
without Aloe vera extract. The formulations were applied for 14 days (single
dose) or 24 days after the first fraction. RESULTS: Single dose irradiation
resulted in an ED50 (dose at which a positive mucosal response was expected in
50% of the animals irradiated) of 11.9+/-1.2 Gy. None of the formulations
yielded a significant change in incidence or time course of ulceration. Test
irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy gave an ED50 of 9.0+/-0.1 Gy. Base treatment
increased the ED50-values to 10.5+/-0.8 Gy (p = 0.0095) and 9.9+/-0.7 Gy (p =
0.0445) without or with Aloe vera. Dexpanthenol resulted in ED50 values of
9.5+/-0.1 Gy without Aloe vera (p > 0.05), and of 10.9+/-0.9 Gy (p = 0.0035)
with Aloe vera. The latent time to ulceration was prolonged, compared to the
control (6.3 days) without Aloe vera (8.0-8.2 days, p < 0.001) and with
dexpanthenol and Aloe vera (7.3 days, p = 0.0239). CONCLUSIONS: With single dose
irradiation, neither dexpanthenol nor Aloe vera extract significantly changed
the oral mucosal radiation response. With fractionated irradiation, drug
administration significantly increased the isoeffective radiation doses,
independent of dexpanthenol or Aloe vera content. Neither dexpanthenol nor Aloe
vera display a prophylactic potential.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16019933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Nat Prod Res. 2005 Sep;19(6):567-71.

In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from
medicinal plants of Pakistan.

Khattak S, Saeed-Ur-Rehman, Shah HU, Khan T, Ahmad M.

Department of Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar - 25120, Pakistan.
[email protected]

Twenty two crude ethanolic extracts from 14 indigenous medicinal plants were
subjected to enzyme inhibition screening against acetylcholinesterase (AChE),
butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase enzymes (LO). Three extracts
showed activity against AChE, nine extracts were found to be active against BChE
and four extracts inhibited the enzyme LO. The most significant inhibition
activities (> or =50%) were found in extracts derived from Aloe vera (leaves),
Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Curcuma longa (rhizome), Cymbopogon citratus
(leaves), Ocimum americanum (leaves), Ocimum americanum (stem) and Withania
somnifera (roots).

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 16010821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93: J AOAC Int. 2005 May-Jun;88(3):684-91.

Quantitative colorimetric analysis of aloe polysaccharides as a measure of Aloe
vera quality in commercial products.

Eberendu AR, Luta G, Edwards JA, McAnalley BH, Davis B, Rodriguez S, Henry CR.

Mannatech, Inc., 600 South Royal Ln, Suite 200, Coppell, TX 75019, USA.
[email protected]

Aloe vera inner leaf gel has been used as a medicinal remedy for many years. Yet
some aloe products do not demonstrate beneficial effects, indicating that poor
quality products are reaching the market. Therefore, an efficient and accurate
method is needed to evaluate the quality of aloe products. This paper describes
a quick, quantitative colorimetric assay that has been developed for the
determination of glucomannan in aloe gel and products. With this method,
interference by non-aloe polysaccharides or other extraneous components was
absent or negligible. Data indicate that the glucomannan can be determined at
parts per million (mg/L) in aqueous solutions with an accuracy of 100 +/- 5% at
a 10 mg/L concentration. The correlation coefficient is 0.999, and linearity is
from 0.9 to 72.7 mg/L in the test solution. The method is inexpensive, simple,
sensitive, and reproducible. This method was applied to determine the
polysaccharide content of commercial aloe products. Both qualitative and
quantitative information can be obtained in about 5 min.

PMID: 16001840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: Yi Chuan. 2005 May;27(3):429-34.

[Preliminary Studies on teh Relationship Between Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells
and Pollen Abortion of Aloe arboresense Mill.]

[Article in Chinese]

Lv L, He CF, Dong YM, Liu JX.

Department of Biology, Capital Normal University and Business University,
Beijing Key Lab of Plant Resources Research adn Development, Beijing 100037,
China, Email: [email protected]

The main reason for pollen abortion in Aloe arboresens Mill. was studied through
the observation of meiosis and the microspore development of its pollen mother
cells(PMCs). There are 14 chromosomes in the PMC of Aloe arboresens Mill.,
containing four pairs of long chromosomes and three pairs of short ones, and
this karyotype belongs to dichotocarpism. Abnormalities observed were fallen
into four categories:(1) Univalents, they were caused by failure in pairing,
asynapsis and precocious cancellation of terminal chiasma. Oriented univalent
pair was distributed at two poles normally in anaphase, while non-oriented
univalent pair only at one pole. Another factor leading to univalents was that
chromosomes were paired but without substantial exchange. (2) Multivalents. They
might be produced by translocation heterozygote.(3) Chromosome bridges. There
were three kinds of bridges in anaphase I and anaphase II: single and double
chromosome bridge as well as "diagonal bridge".(4) A few cells were found with
lagged chromosomes, micronuclei and unbalanced segregation of the chromosomes.
In the later stages of meiosis, well-spread chromosomal configurations were rare
because of the extremely sticky nature of the chromosome. The number and ratio
of abnormalities were analysed and the relationship between abnormalities and
pollen sterility were discussed. It is concluded that the sticky nature of the
chromosome is the main reason for abnormal meiosis of Aloe arboresens Mill.PMC
and pollen sterility. More than 90% of matured pollen grains were sterile.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15985409 [PubMed - in process]

95: Adv Nurse Pract. 2005 Jun;13(6):55-6, 58.

Nature's wrath? A closer look at complications with five popular herbs.

Simkins A, Thurston D, Colyar M, Talbot S.

Utah Pain and Rehab, Ogden, Utah, USA.

PMID: 15984360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Br Dent J. 2005 Jun 25;198(12):756-7.

Comment on:
Br Dent J. 2005 Apr 9;198(7):385.

Dental irrigators.

Leigh GC.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15980841 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: Phytochemistry. 2005 Jun;66(12):1399-1406.

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

Reynolds T.

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Surrey, UK. [email protected]

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous
plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the
representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more
toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to
coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of
the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite
unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for
instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although
some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local
species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been
records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic
mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds
are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the
effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to
foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp
meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The
alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway
in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15955542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2005 Mar-Apr;60(3-4):279-84.

Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

Takahashi M, Konaka D, Sakamoto A, Morikawa H.

Department of Mathematical and Life Science, Graduate School of Science,
Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
[email protected]

In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and
crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl
l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and
assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and
Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf
(Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis
alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100
to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced
uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal
uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight.
Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant
differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and
kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana
(kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of
NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime
and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as
compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate
that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15948596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Ultrason Sonochem. 2006 Apr;13(3):232-6. Epub 2005 Jun 2.

Effect of ultrasonic exposure on Ca2+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane from
Aloe arborescens callus cells.

Liu Y, Yang H, Takatsuki H, Sakanishi A.

School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and
Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, PR China. [email protected]

We investigated the effect of ultrasound on plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-ATPase
activity of Aloe arborescens callus cells in solid culture. The calluses were
exposed by a 20 kHz digital sonifier at the powers of 2 and 10 W from the
effective exposure times of 2-10 s. PM Ca2+-ATPase activity was almost
significantly higher at 2 W both in continuous wave and 10% duty cycle than that
of the control (no ultrasound) at effective exposure times of 5 and 10 s.
However, its activity decreased at 10 W in continuous wave exposure. It is
possible that the PM Ca2+-ATPase configuration or structure may be partly
damaged by high-energy ultrasound at 10 W. Our results showed that low-energy
ultrasound exposure was a useful physical field to stimulate A. arborescens
callus cells to adapt environmental stress through PM Ca2+-ATPase activity

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15936236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Jun;52(6):1049-59.

Green tea and the skin.

Hsu S.

Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry,
Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912-1126, USA. [email protected]

Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing,
anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba,
echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja,
sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin,
feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common
character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These
phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen
species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate
biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising
properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds,
called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of
studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and
anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 15928624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jun;96(6):495-502.

Aloe emodin-induced apoptosis in t-HSC/Cl-6 cells involves a
mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Lian LH, Park EJ, Piao HS, Zhao YZ, Sohn DH.

Department of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of

The aim of our study was to clarify the apoptosis pathway induced by aloe
emodin, an hydroxyanthraquinone present in aloe vera leaves, in rat hepatic
stellate cells transformed by simian virus 40 (t-HSC/Cl-6), which retain the
features of activated rat stellate cells. Apoptosis was determined by DNA
fragmentation, caspase activity assay and western blotting analysis. Treatment
of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells with 12.5, 25, or 50 microM aloe emodin inhibited t-HSC/Cl-6
cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis
by aloe emodin was confirmed by typical DNA ladder formation and annexin
v-propidium iodide flow-cytometric analysis. Aloe emodin treatment of t-HSC/Cl-6
cells caused activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, detected with a caspase
activity assay, although no change was observed in caspase-8 activity. Western
blotting showed caspase-3 and caspase-9 active forms and the subsequent
proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Aloe emodin induced
mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Our data also show that cytochrome c
increased in the cytosol but decreased in the mitochondria in a time-dependent
manner. Increased Bax and unchanged Bcl-2 levels resulted in an increased
Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Thus, our research provides evidence that aloe emodin-induced
apoptosis involves a mitochondria-associated apoptosis pathway.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15910415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Vet Parasitol. 2005 Jun 10;130(1-2):9-13. Epub 2005 Apr 12.

Identification of anti-babesial activity for four ethnoveterinary plants in

Naidoo V, Zweygarth E, Eloff JN, Swan GE.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of
Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
[email protected]

A commonly available Babesia caballi culture system was utilized for
anti-babesial screening of four commonly used ethnoveterinary plants,
Rhoiscissus tridentata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Aloe marlothii and Urginea
sanguinea, in vitro. Well-established B. caballi cultures were initially
incubated with either imidocarb diproprionate and diminazene aceturate to
validate the model, where after the studies were performed on the four plants.
Effectivity was established as the degree of inhibition using a colour change
method as well as by evaluating percentage parasitized cells on thin culture
smears and calculating the degree of residual infectivity. The model was
effective in demonstrating the in vitro efficacy of the well known anti-babesial
drugs imidocarb and diminazene indicating an EC50 value of 0.08 and 0.3
microg/ml, respectively. Only the E. elephantina rhizomes acetone extracts were
effective at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. It was also shown that the colour
change method of evaluation was not very sensitive for determining activity of
crude plant extracts.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15893064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Se Pu. 2005 Jan;23(1):96-9.

[Preparative isolation and purification of cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone from
aloe vera by high-speed countercurrent chromatography]

[Article in Chinese]

Pan X, Cao X, Dong Y, Zhao H.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, School of
Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business
University, Beijing 100037, China.

Aloe chromone is a group of anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase constituents
found in aloe vera leaves. High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) is
reported for the preparative isolation and purification of a chromone from aloe
vera. The crude extract was obtained by a series of pretreatment of aloe vera
leaves and extracted from decolorizing active carbon with methanol. Then the
extract was distributed between dichloromethane and water, and the organic part
was then subjected to HSCCC for the isolation of chromone constituents. The
chromone compounds with a high performance liquid chromatographic grade (>95%)
was isolated through two step HSCCC separations by employing two solvent systems
composed of chloroform-methanol-water and dichloromethane-methanol-water at
volume ratios of 4/3/2 and 5/4/2, respectively. The chromone was finally
identified as cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone by ultraviolet (UV), fast atom
bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and
13C NMR).

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15881378 [PubMed - in process]

104: Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2005 May;17(5):296-8.

[Effect of aloe vera polysaccharide on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide
in cultured human keratinocytes]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen XD, Huang LY, Wu BY, Jiang Q, Wang ZC, Lin XH.

Provincial Burns Institute, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou
350001, Fujian, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracted from Aloe
Barbadensis on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured human
keratinocytes. METHODS: The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha
(TGF-alpha), TGF-beta1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis
factor (TNF) and NO in the supernatants of keratinocyte culture in which culture
media containing 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 microg/ml, respectively of aloe
polysaccharide were assayed. In the control group equal volume of media without
the polysaccharide was used. RESULTS: Compared with control group, the levels of
TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF in the supernatants of
cultured keratinocytes were significantly higher when aloe polysaccharide was
added (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and they were positively correlated to the
concentration of aloe polysaccharide (P<0.01). However, aloe polysaccharide
markedly decreased the level of NO in a dose dependent manner (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Aloe polysaccharide could promote keratinocytes to secrete
TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF, and inhibit the release of

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15877961 [PubMed - in process]

105: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2003 Mar;2(1):25-39.

Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

Biswas TK, Mukherjee B.

Department of Sharira Kriya, J. B. Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College and

Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical
sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural
resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of
medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in
the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most
of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been
screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in
different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains
unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some
Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon,
Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa,
Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica,
Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental
models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic

PMID: 15866825 [PubMed]

106: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Apr 29;37(5):937-41. Epub 2005 Jan 13.

Standardization of marketed Kumariasava--an Ayurvedic Aloe vera product.

Elamthuruthy AT, Shah CR, Khan TA, Tatke PA, Gabhe SY.

B/101, Mukund Police Station Road, Dahisar (East), Mumbai 400068, India.

Kumariasava is a marketed ayurvedic formulation containing Aloe vera as one of
the main ingredients. Present study aims to standardize Kumariasava based upon
chromatographic and spectral studies. Various extracts of Kumariasava have been
prepared and evaluated. Chloroform extract indicated presence of three
well-resolved fluorescent components. Spectral data of these three fractions
(III-V) have been reported as a valuable analytical tool for routine
standardization of Kumariasava. Fraction V indicated presence of anthraquinones,
which is reported as the main constituent of aloe, namely aloin. Hence,
isolation and evaluation of aloin has been undertaken. Aloin can be used as
possible marker compound for standardization of Kumariasava.

PMID: 15862670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 May;19(3):326-31.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the
treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris.

Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F.

Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C,
Denmark. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: The Aloe vera plant has been used for an array of ailments,
including skin diseases. Recent experimental research have substantiated the
presence of biologically active compounds in the gel, but there are few
controlled, clinical trials to assess the efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To test the
effect of a commercial, preserved, but otherwise untreated Aloe vera gel in
psoriasis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty-one patients with stable plaque psoriasis
were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled right/left
comparison. The study comprised a 2-week wash-out period followed by a 4-week
treatment period with two daily applications and follow-up visits after 1 and 2
months. RESULTS: Data on 40 patients were analysed. The score sum of erythema,
infiltration and desquamation decreased in 72.5% of the Aloe vera-treated sites
compared with 82.5% of the placebo-treated areas from week 0 to week 4, which
was statistically significant in favour of the placebo treatment (P = 0.0197).
Fifty-five per cent of the patients reported local side-effects, mainly drying
up of the skin on test areas. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of this commercial Aloe
vera gel on stable plaque psoriasis was modest and not better than placebo.
However, the high response rate of placebo indicated a possible effect of this
in its own right, which would make the Aloe vera gel treatment appear less

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15857459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Naturwissenschaften. 2005 Jun;92(6):297-9. Epub 2005 Apr 27.

Highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees helps deactivate phenolics in

Liu F, He J, Fu W.

Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuefu
Road 88, Kunming, 650223, PR China. [email protected]

Honey bees have a highly developed nest homeostasis, for example, maintaining
low CO2 levels and stable nest temperatures at 35 degrees C.We investigate the
role of nest homeostasis in deactivating phenolic compounds present in the
nectar of Aloe littoralis. We show that the phenolic content in nectar was
reduced (from 0.65% to 0.49%) after nectar was incubated in a nest of Apis
cerana, and that it was reduced still more (from 0.65% to 0.37%) if nectar was
mixed with hypopharyngeal gland proteins (HGP) of worker bees before being
placed inside a nest. HGP had little effect on samples outside a nest,
indicating that nest conditions are necessary for HGP to deactivate phenolics in
nectar. Consequently, the highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees
facilitates direct deactivation of phenolics in nectar, and plays a role in the
action of HGP as well.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15856150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Pharmacol Rep. 2005 Jan-Feb;57(1):90-6.

Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
in rats.

Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Guindy
Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of
antioxidant property in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel. Oral
administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg to
diabetic rats significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated
hemoglobin and increased hemoglobin. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation
and hydroperoxides in tissues of diabetic rats were reverted back to near normal
levels after the treatment with gel extract. The extract treatment also resulted
in a significant increase in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase,
catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver and
kidney of diabetic rats. These results clearly show the antioxidant property of
Aloe vera gel extract. The extract was also more effective than glibenclamide in
restoring the values of these parameters.

PMID: 15849382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2004 Dec;24(12):1672-5.

[Determination of trace zinc, manganese, cadmium and lead in aloe by
microwave-digestion atomic absorption spectrometry]

[Article in Chinese]

Yang L, Hou XY, Wang SJ, Jia QL, Li Z, Guo ZK.

School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029,

A microwave digestion procedure was developed for the determination of trace Zn,
Mn, Cd and Pb in aloe-leaf cuticle and aloe-leaf gelatin, using the obturated
vessel microwave digestion system with a pressure controlling part, and the
amounts of these trace metallic elements were determined by atomic absorption
spectrometry after microwave digestion. The effects of the composition of
digestion solution, the ratio of the sample to digestion solution, and the
digestion time were studied. It is satisfactory to apply the microwave digestion
procedure to the determination of Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb under the optimized
condition with the recovery of 95.0% to 110.0% and RSD of 0.3% to 6.2%. The
results show that this method is rapid and simple with low environmental
contamination and complete digestion of the sample.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15828358 [PubMed - in process]

111: Ai Zheng. 2005 Apr;24(4):438-42.

[Radioprotective effect of aloe polysaccharides on three non-tumor cell lines]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang ZW, Huang ZS, Yang AP, Li CY, Huang H, Lin X, Liu ZC, Zhu XF.

School of Pharmacy, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510405, P. R. China.

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Our previous study showed that aloe polysaccharides (AP)
could evidently decrease the mortality of irradiated mice mainly through
increasing the amount of hemocytes and ameliorating immune function of mice.
Whether AP can protect the cells in vitro from irradiation damage is unknown.
This study was to explore radioprotective effect of AP on 3 non-tumor cell
lines, and its effect on cell cycle. METHODS: MTT assay was used to detect
cytotoxicities of AP to normal human liver cell line Chang Liver (C. Liver),
normal human embryo kidney cell line 293, and normal human umbilicus vein
endothelial cell line ECV304. The 3 cell lines were treated with AP before or
after irradiation. After 7-10 days normal culture, survival rate of cells was
calculated by clone formation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry
(FCM) at different time points after irradiation. RESULTS: 293 cells were
treated with AP at different time points before and after x-ray irradiation.
Survival rate of 293 cells treated with AP 30 min before x-ray irradiation was
the highest (64.2%) among all groups. Evident dosage-effect relationship of AP
appeared in concentration range of 12.5-50 microg/ml. After treatment of 50
microg/ml of AP, survival rates of 293, ECV304, and C. Liver cells increased
from 41.5%, 46.5%, and 40.9% to 49.4%, 72.1%, and 89.1%, respectively.
Irradiation caused a distinct G(2)/M block and decreased G(0)/G(1) phase
population in 293 and C.Liver cells. In C.Liver cells, pretreatment of 50 mug/ml
of AP increased G(0)/G(1) phase population from 31.8% to 43.8%, decreased G(2)/M
phase population from 38.5% to 13.8% 6 h after irradiation; and decreased G(2)/M
phase population from 22.9% to 8.7% 24 h after irradiation. In 293 cells, the
same pretreatment increased G(0)/G(1) phase population from 30.1% to 45.9% 6 h
after irradiation, and from 40.4% to 45.2% 24 h after irradiation accompanied by
decrease of G(2)/M population from 59.6% to 54.1%. CONCLUSIONS: AP has
radioprotective effect on non-tumor cells. This effect might relate to
alleviating of cell cycle turbulence.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15820066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112: Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2005 Apr;4(4):333-40. Epub 2005 Feb 25.

Optical properties of rhodoxanthin accumulated in Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves
under high-light stress with special reference to its photoprotective function.

Merzlyak M, Solovchenko A, Pogosyan S.

Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State
University, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]

In Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves, strong sunlight or its combination with
drought induces the accumulation of the red keto-carotenoid, rhodoxanthin.
Simultaneously, the transformation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts accompanied
by degradation of thylakoid membranes and formation of plastoglobuli, large in
size and number, takes place. Depending on stress conditions the build up of
rhodoxantin occurred along with the loss of chlorophyll or on the background of
relatively high content of the pigment in the leaves. Microspectrophotometrical
measurements showed the presence of chlorophyll-free plastids and retention of
carotenoids during leaf adaptation to strong sunlight. The plastid spectra
contained absorption bands of common for higher plants carotenoids together with
those of rhodoxantin, with absorption maxima situated in the blue (440-480 nm)
and the green ranges of the spectrum, respectively. The studies of whole-leaf
optical properties revealed a broad band of rhodoxanthin absorption in the
blue-green range peaking near 540-550 nm. Within this spectral band the
accumulation of rhodoxanthin occurring, probably, in plastoglobuli considerably
increased light absorption by stressed Aloe leaves. A possible photoprotective
function of rhodoxanthin and other carotenoids as an internal light trap
analogous to that accomplished by anthocyanins in other plant species is

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15803203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Phytother Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):23-8.

Protective value of Aloe vera against some toxic effects of arsenic in rats.

Gupta R, Flora SJ.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development
Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474-002, India.

Concomitant oral supplementation of Aloe vera, (1, 2 or 5% w[sol ]v in drinking
water) during arsenic exposure (0.2 mg[sol ]kg, intraperitoneally, once daily
for 3 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. Animals exposed
to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid
dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an
increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. White blood corpuscles
(WBC) level decreased while most of the other clinical blood parameters like red
blood cells count, haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, MCHC ratio and platelet number, etc.
remained unaltered on arsenic exposure. Hepatic reduced GSH, oxidized
glutathione (GSSG) level remained unaltered, thiobarbituric acid reactive
substance (TBARS) level increased significantly while the activity of alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase
(ALT) and catalase decreased on arsenic exposure. Renal GSH contents decreased
while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly on arsenic
exposure. Concomitant administration of Aloe vera had remarkable protective
action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored blood GSH level while most
of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Aloe vera
supplementation. Interestingly, most of hepatic biochemical variables indicative
of oxidative stress showed protection; no effect of Aloe vera on blood and liver
arsenic concentration was noted. Also, no effect of Aloe vera on most of the
altered renal biochemical parameters were noticed. The results thus lead us to
conclude that simultaneous supplementation of Aloe vera protects against arsenic
induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in
these organs. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 15799004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114: Carbohydr Res. 2005 May 2;340(6):1131-42.

Chemical characterization of the immunomodulating polysaccharide of Aloe vera L.

Tai-Nin Chow J, Williamson DA, Yates KM, Goux WJ.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688,
Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA.

The polysaccharide isolated by alcohol precipitation of Aloe vera mucilaginous
gel was found to have a Man:Glc:Gal:GalA:Fuc:Ara:Xyl ratio of 120:9:6:3:2:2:1
with traces of Rha and GlcA. Linkage analysis of the
endo-(1-->4)-beta-d-mannanase-treated sample yielded Manp-(1--> (approximately
26%), 4-Manp (approximately 53%), 2,4-Manp (approximately 3%), 3,4-Manp
(approximately 1%), 4,6-Manp (approximately 1%), 4-Glcp (approximately 5%),
4-Xylp (approximately 1%), Xylp-(1--> (approximately 2%), Galp-(1-->
(approximately 5%), and traces of 4,6-Galp and 3,6-Galp. Hydrolysis with strong
acids produced a mixture of short oligosaccharides and an acid-resistant
fraction containing greater relative fractions of Manp-(1-->, Araf-(1-->,
Xylp-(1-->, and 4-Xylp than the bulk polysaccharide. NMR analysis of
oligosaccharides generated by endo-(1-->4)-beta-D-mannanase and acid hydrolysis
showed the presence of di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides of 4-beta-Manp,
beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-Man, beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-Manp-(1-->4)-Man, and
beta-Manp-(1-->4)-[alpha-Galp-(1-->6)]-Man, consistent with a backbone
containing alternating -->4)-beta-Manp-(1--> and -->4)-beta-Glcp-(1--> residues
in a approximately 15:1 ratio. Analysis of the sample treated sequentially with
endo-(1-->4)-beta-d-mannanase and alpha-D-galactosidase showed that the majority
of alpha-Galp-(1--> residues were linked to O-2, O-3, or O-6 of
-->4)-beta-Manp-(1--> residues, with approximately 16 -->4)-beta-Manp-(1-->
residues between side chains. Our data provide direct evidence of a previously
proposed glucomannan backbone, but draw into question previously proposed
side-chain structures.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15797128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Gen Dent. 2005 Jan-Feb;53(1):6-9.

Aloe vera gel: update for dentistry.

Wynn RL.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15779214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2004 Apr;24(4):463-5.

[Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of iron(II), copper(I) and
cobalt(II) in aloe by second derivative peak area spectrophotometry]

[Article in Chinese]

Li HM, Su LH, Chen RZ.

Department of Chemistry, Changchun Teachers College, Changchun 130032, China.

A new method for simultaneous determination of iron(II), copper(I) and
cobalt(II) was established by second derivative peak area spectrophotometry in
chromogenic system of 1,10-phenanthroline. The method could avoid disturbing by
some ions. The accuracy and sensitivity were improved. There is a linear
relationship in the range of 0.0-8.5 microg x mL(-1) for Fe(II); of 0.0-7.3
microg x mL(-1) for Cu(I); and of 0.0-5.9 microg x mL(-1) for Co(II). The method
has been applied to simultaneous determination of iron(II), copper(I) and
cobalt(II) in aloe with satisfactory results. The average recovery is 98.6%-102%
and the RSD is 0.1%-0.2%. There is no remarkable difference between these
results and those of ICP-AES method.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15766158 [PubMed - in process]

117: Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005;109(1-3):144-7.

The controversial telomeres of lily plants.

de la Herran R, Cunado N, Navajas-Perez R, Santos JL, Ruiz Rejon C,
Garrido-Ramos MA, Ruiz Rejon M.

Departamento de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada,

The molecular structure of the exceptional telomeres of six plant species
belonging to the order Asparagales and two species of the order Liliales was
analyzed using Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three
different situations were found, namely: i) In the two Liliales species, Tulipa
australis (Liliaceae) and Merendera montana (Colchicaceae), the chromosome ends
display hybridization signals with oligonucleotides resembling telomere repeats
of both plants (TTTAGGG)n and vertebrates (TTAGGG)n. ii) Asparagales species
such as Phormium tenax (Hemerocallidaceae), Muscari comosum (Hyacinthaceae),
Narcissus jonquilla (Amaryllidaceae) and Allium sativum (Alliaceae) lack both
the plant telomere repeats and the vertebrate telomere repeats. iii) Two other
Asparagales species, Aloe vera (Asphodelaceae) and an Iris hybrid (Iridaceae),
display positive hybridization with the vertebrate telomere repeats but not with
the plant telomere repeats. Southern blot hybridization revealed concurring
results. On this basis, the composition of the telomere structure in this plant
group is discussed. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15753570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118: Ceska Slov Farm. 2005 Jan;54(1):43-6.

[Antilipoxygenase activity and the trace elements content of Aloe vera in
relation to the therapeutical effect]

[Article in Slovak]

Bezakova L, Oblozinsky M, Sykorova M, Paulikova I, Kostalova D.

Katedra bunkovej a molekularnej biologie lieciv Farmaceutickej fakulty
Univerzity Komenskeho, Bratislava. [email protected]

Aloe vera is a rich source of many natural-health-promoting substances. The
results of contemporary research on animal models indicate that the extracts
have an antiinflammatory property. In this work the results of some in vitro
experiments are shown: determination of the inhibitory effect of the Aloe vera
extracts on the activity of partially purified lipoxygenase from the rat lung
cytosol fraction, and quantitative determination of the trace elements presented
in the extract (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) carried out by using the x-ray fluorescence
analysis. The findings could explain the inhibitory effect (antilipoxygenase
activity) of the Aloe vera extract in the acute inflammation process, expecially
in the topical application for healing of minor burns and skin ulcers.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15751795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Eur J Intern Med. 2005 Feb;16(1):59-60.

Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with Aloe vera administration.

Evangelos C, Spyros K, Spyros D.

Academic Department of Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, 114 Vas. Sophias
Ave., GR-115 27 Athens, Greece.

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis that occurs most often
in children and rarely follows exposure to drugs or other environmental factors.
Aloe is one of the most widely used traditional remedies and has been associated
with gastrointestinal and renal complications. We report a case of HSP in an
adult patient who had previously received the herb Aloe vera.

PMID: 15733825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

120: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Nov;33(6):747-9.

[Determination of germanium in aloe vera by spectrophotometric method]

[Article in Chinese]

Hou D, Hui R, Chen B, Guo H, Li H.

Department of Chemistry, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005, China.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the organic germanium in aloe vera from different
localities. METHODS: The method was based on germanium forms a stable complex
with phenylfluorone in the acidified solution and CTMAB as solubilization agent.
The contents of the organic germanium in Aloe vera from different localities
were determined by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: The linear range of
determination is 0-0.7 microg/ml. The recovery is 98.1%-99.0% and the
coefficient of variation is 1.8%.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15727195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;57(2):241-6.

Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats
treated with streptozotocin.

Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Guindy
Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying diabetes and
diabetic-related complications. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance
between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems. Many secondary plant
metabolites have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study was
designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of the ethanolic
extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in the plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin
(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference
drug. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a concentration of 300 mg
kg(-1) body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting
blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and
alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced
glutathione and insulin in the plasma of diabetic rats. Similarly, the treatment
also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione
peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in the pancreas of
STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The
ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide in
controlling oxidative stress. Thus, this study confirms the ethnopharmacological
use of Aloe vera in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetes.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15720789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005 Feb 15;5:3.

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility
in Trinidad.

Clement YN, Williams AF, Aranda D, Chase R, Watson N, Mohammed R, Stubbs O,
Williamson D.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St, Augustine,
Trinidad and Tobago. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and
patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines
for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal
herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety
of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting
the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty
care clinic in Trinidad. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was
conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested,
researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. RESULTS:
Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for
symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not
influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary
level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%)
obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%)
obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends
were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3%
consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper
and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients
attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is
relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore
becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on
this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

PMID: 15713232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Sep;27(9):627-8.

[Determination of aloin content in callus of Aloe vera var. chinensis]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang H, Li F, Wang T, Li J, Li J, Yang X, Li J.

College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453002.

The relationship between aloin accumulation of Aloe vera var. chinensis and the
callus cultured by the roots, stems and leaves as explants. The aloin content in
callus was determined by means of HPLC and TLC. The results showed that on the
MS medium with NAA 1 mg/L + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L, the differentiation degree of the
callus induced from the leaves was in the highest level, meanwhile the callus
contained the most aloin. The aloin content was low in the callus from stems.
There was no aloin in callus from roots. It was also found that on the MS medium
with 2,4-D 1 mg/L + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L, the callus differentiation was in low level
and without aloin, no matter what organs were used.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15704580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124: J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Feb 9;127(5):1362-3.

A plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone.

Abe I, Utsumi Y, Oguro S, Morita H, Sano Y, Noguchi H.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE 21 Program, University of
Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. [email protected]

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15686354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125: Planta Med. 2005 Jan;71(1):79-81.

Aloeresin I, an anti-inflammatory 5-methylchromone from cape aloe.

Speranza G, Morelli CF, Tubaro A, Altinier G, Duri L, Manitto P.

Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di
Milano, Italy. [email protected]

A new diglucoside having a 5-methylchromone moiety was isolated from a
commercial sample of Cape aloe, the dried exudate from Aloe ferox Miller, and
named aloeresin I. Its structure was established as 1 on the basis of spectral
and chemical evidence. Aloeresin I (1) (1 micromol/cm2) reduces in vivo the
oedematous response (39 %) induced by Croton oil in the mouse ear with the same
potency as aloesin, one of the most abundant Cape aloe constituents, and to a
higher extent than aloeresin H (2). Indomethacin (0.3 micromol/cm2), the
reference anti-inflammatory compound, provokes 61 % oedema inhibition.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15678379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Jan;4(1):108-12. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

DNA ploidy and S phase fraction of breast and ovarian tumor cells treated with a
natural anthracycline analog (aloin).

Esmat AY, El-Gerzawy SM, Rafaat A.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo,
Egypt. [email protected]

DNA ploidy and S phase fraction analysis by flow cytometry on breast and ovarian
tumor cells continuously exposed to aloin, a natural anthraquinone, at two
concentrations (20-60 microg/ml) was done. Untreated breast and ovarian tumor
cells (control) showed an aneuploid pattern, with a mean DNA index of
2.10+/-0.10 and S phase fraction of 28.46+/-1.5 and 17.40+/-0.75%, respectively.
Treatment of breast and ovarian tumor cells with aloin showed a persistent
aneuploid pattern and a significantly dose-dependent increase in the percentage
of S phase fraction and in the proportion of cells cycling at a higher ploidy
level (>G2M). The polyploidization indicates that aloin does not inhibit
initiation of DNA synthesis and that cells replicated a full complement of DNA
but had difficulty in M phase.

PMID: 15662120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127: Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(2):271-9.

Identification of optimal molecular size of modified Aloe polysaccharides with
maximum immunomodulatory activity.

Im SA, Oh ST, Song S, Kim MR, Kim DS, Woo SS, Jo TH, Park YI, Lee CK.

College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, South

Polysaccharides isolated from the gel of Aloe species have been known to have
diverse biological activities, including immunomodulatory and antitumor
activities. The molecular size-immunomodulatory activity relationship of
modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) was examined in this study. Crude MAP (G2E1)
was prepared from the gel of Aloe vera that was partially digested with
cellulase. Proteins in crude MAP were removed by passage through a DEAE-Sephacel
column, and then the protein-free MAP (G2E1D) was further separated into three
fractions, G2E1DS3 molecular weight (MW > or = 400 KDa), G2E1DS2 (5 KDa < or =
MW < or = 400 KDa), G2E1DS1 (MW < or = 5 KDa), by Sephacryl column
chromatography and ultrafiltration. Immunomodulatory activities of MAP
preparations were examined on a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells, and
in ICR strain of mouse implanted with sarcoma 180 cells. We found that
polysaccharides between 400 and 5 KDa exhibit the most potent
macrophage-activating activity as determined by increased cytokine production,
nitric oxide release, expression of surface molecules, and phagocytic activity.
In accordance with the in vitro activity, polysaccharides between 400 and 5 KDa
also exhibited the most potent antitumor activity in vivo.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15652758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128: World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan 14;11(2):303-4.

Acute hepatitis induced by an Aloe vera preparation: a case report.

Rabe C, Musch A, Schirmacher P, Kruis W, Hoffmann R.

Department of Medicine, Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Koeln Kalk, Germany.
[email protected]

AIM: Aloe vera, plant extracts of Aloe barbadensis miller, is widely used in
phytomedicine. The first case of acute hepatitis due to this compound was
described. METHODS: Description of a clinical case. RESULTS: Hepatitis in a
57-year old female could be linked to the ingestion of Aloe barbadensis miller
compounds. The patient's hepatitis resolved completely after discontinuing this
medication. CONCLUSION: The case emphasizes the importance of considering
phytopharmaceutical over-the-counter drugs as causative agents of hepatitis.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 15633238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Nov;28(11):1034-7.

[Relationship between antibacterial activity of aloe and its anthaquinone

[Article in Chinese]

Tian B, Hua YJ, Ma XQ, Wang GL.

Department of Applied Bioscience, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences,
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang, China. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the antibacterial activity of
aloe and its contents of anthaquinone compounds, measure and compale
antibacterial activities of aloin and aloe-emodin, and analyse the effect of
glycoside on the antibacterial activity of aloin. METHOD: The antibacterial
activities of the extracts from the outer leaf of Aloe saponaria Haw, aloin and
aloe-emodin against three Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria were
investigated with the method of agar diffusion. The antibacterial effect of
aloin on E. coli was further studied with scanning electron microscopy. RESULT:
The antibacterial activities of aloe showed to be dependent on the dose of
anthraquinone, aloin (1 g x L(-1)) exhibited higher antibacterial activity
[inhibition diameter > (7. 1 +/- 0.15) mm] than Aloe-emodin (inhibition diameter
< 5.0 mm), and aloin changed the morphology of E. coli and damaged the outer
cell structrue. CONCLUSION: Anthraquinone compounds are the active antibacterial
components in aloe and aloin is the main active compound. The glycoside makes it
easy for aloin to invade cells and enhances its activity.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15615409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130: J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Sep;45(3):447-54.

Aloe polysaccharides mediated radioprotective effect through the inhibition of

Wang ZW, Zhou JM, Huang ZS, Yang AP, Liu ZC, Xia YF, Zeng YX, Zhu XF.

Department of Pharmacology, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
School of Pharmaceutical Science, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Polysaccharides from aloe are always considered an effective radioprotector on
irradiation-induced skin damage. The aim of this study was to determine if aloe
polysaccharides (AP) have radioprotective effects on normal human cells in vitro
and mouse survival in vivo and to explore the mechanism. Pretreatment with 50
microg/ml AP could improve the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) of three normal
cell lines 293, ECV304, and C. liver from 41.5%, 46.5%, and 40.9% to 49.4%,
72.1%, and 89.1%, respectively. AP could also reduce the apoptotic rate of C.
liver cells from 9.5% and 43.0% to 2.2% and 10.9% 48 h and 72 h after 2 Gy
irradiation, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that pretreatment with
AP could block the upregulation of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax, and Bad and the
downregulation of Bcl-2 by irradiation. AP could lower thymocyte apoptosis of
mice in vivo after 6 Gy irradiation and abrogate the cell cycle perturbation.
Fifty mg/kg of AP treatment for 30 min before 7.5 Gy irradiation provided the
best radioprotective effect and improved the 30-day survival rate of mice to
86.0%, from 10.0%. AP exerted radioprotective effects in vitro and in vivo
through an inhibition of apoptosis.

PMID: 15613791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131: Cutis. 2004 Nov;74(5 Suppl):24-8.

Natural products as aids for protecting the skin's immune system against UV

Strickland FM, Kuchel JM, Halliday GM.

Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Modern sun-protection products reduce the risk for erythema and DNA damage, but
even those products with a very high sun protection factor (SPF) and
full-spectrum UVB and UVA protection may not prevent UV radiation (UVR)-induced
immunomodulation. Formulating sunscreens with a high SPF, as well as a high
immune protection factor, is necessary for preventing skin cancer and
maintaining effective immune responses to infectious disease after sun exposure.
Supplementing current sun-protection products with immunoprotective compounds
may help fill the gap between erythema protection and immunoprotection. Animal
and now human studies have shown that a class of agents known as
oligosaccharins--complex carbohydrates found in plants--protect the cutaneous
immune system from UVB-induced and UVA-induced immunomodulation. This
immunoprotective effect occurs independently from erythema and DNA damage
protection, and these agents, particularly tamarind xyloglucan, may become
important adjunctive ingredients to sunscreens.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15603219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132: Crit Care. 2004 Dec;8(6):406-7. Epub 2004 Oct 7.

Comment in:
Crit Care. 2005 Jun;9(3):304-5; author reply 304-5.

Of hemorrhagic shock, spherical cows and Aloe vera.

Gutierrez G, Fuller SP.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, The
George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA.
[email protected]

The central question explored in this commentary is whether the beneficial
effects of an Aloe vera derived drag-reducing polymer during hemorrhagic shock
is due to its O2 radical scavenging properties or to changes in blood rheology.

PMID: 15566601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133: J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2004 Nov;15(4):576-88.

Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

Coronado GD, Thompson B, Tejeda S, Godina R.

Cancer Prevention Program, the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle,
Washington, USA.

Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with
non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes
in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men
and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments
for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a
family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging
in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto),
intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to
precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is
important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral
medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear
cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings
may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in
Hispanic populations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 15531816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1775-84.

Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces
apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells.

Acevedo-Duncan M, Russell C, Patel S, Patel R.

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
[email protected]

Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) purified from Aloe
vera leaves has been reported to have antitumor activity. The objectives of our
research were to determine how aloe-emodin regulates the cell cycle, cell
proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) during glioma growth and development.
To establish the cell cycle effects of aloe-emodin on brain cells [transformed
glia cell line (SVG) and human glioma U-373MG cell line (U-373MG)], cells were
treated with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40
microM). Results from flow cytometry demonstrated that aloe-emodin delayed the
number of cells entering and exiting DNA synthesis (S) phase in both SVG and
U-373MG cells indicating that aloe-emodin may inhibit S phase progression.
Assessment of cell viability demonstrated that SVG and U-373MG glioma cell were
highly sensitive to aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-induced decreased proliferation
was sustained at 48-96 h. A PKC activity assay was quantified to establish the
role of PKC in aloe-emodin's mode of action. Exposure of SVG and U-373MG glioma
cells to aloe-emodin suppressed PKC activity and reduced the protein content of
most of the PKC isozymes. We determined that cancer growth inhibition by
aloe-emodin was due to apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death). Taken together,
these results support the hypothesis that aloe-emodin represents a novel
antitumor chemotherapeutic drug.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15531293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1757-73.

Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of

Talmadge J, Chavez J, Jacobs L, Munger C, Chinnah T, Chow JT, Williamson D,
Yates K.

Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Department of Pathology and
Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 987660 Nebraska Medical
Center, South 42nd Street, Omaha, NE 68198-7660, USA. [email protected]

Products derived from the inner gel of the Aloe vera L. plant have demonstrated
multiple clinical activities, and are used routinely to accelerate wound
healing. However, typical of natural products, the complex nature of Aloe vera
gels may contribute to diverse pharmacologic activities. Our focus on the
hematopoietic activities of Aloe vera extracts is extended by these functional
studies, which used purified fractions from Aloe vera gel and included a
preliminary organ-specific in vitro molecular profile. Studies using a >99% pure
carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera extracts revealed increased hematopoietic
and hematologic activity compared to the starting material. In addition, this
fraction differentially regulated liver and lung cytokine mRNA levels, resulting
in significant increases in message for hematopoietic cytokines [granulocyte
colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. This profile of
activity differed from another fraction obtained from Aloe vera, suggesting the
potential for diverse pharmacologic activity. The molecular studies were
undertaken using co-cultures of organ slices to limit the amount of purified
material required. In summary, these studies revealed significant hematopoietic
activity by both pharmacologic and molecular analysis using a >99% pure
carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gels.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15531292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1745-55.

Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf

Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I.

DelSite Biotechnologies lab. c/o Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas
A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. [email protected]

The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in
various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial
effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the
pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp
polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its
chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure,
isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions
along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan
hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron
microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a
diameter as large as 1000 microm. These cells were composed of cell walls and
cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular
organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells.
Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated
by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a
viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular
organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and
chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (+/-3.8), 0.70%
(+/-0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition
of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles
contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually
high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components
were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component.
Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different
polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These
findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better
controlled processing methods and applications for this well-accepted medicinal

PMID: 15531291 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1739-44.

Analysis of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin by gas chromatography/mass

ElSohly MA, Gul W, Murphy TP.

ElSohly Laboratories, Incorporated (ELI), 5 Industrial Park Drive, Oxford, MS
38655, USA. [email protected]

A procedure was developed for the determination of low levels of the
anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin A (barbalin) in aloe products based on gas
chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the trimethyl silyl (TMS)
derivatives of these analytes in the presence of Chrysophanol used as internal
standard. The method was used to analyze several aloe based commercial products
(liquids, gels and solids). Wide variation in the level of these anthraquinones
was observed among the different products. The method had a sensitivity of 0.005
ppm of aloe-emodin and 0.05 ppm of aloin.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15531290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1727-37.

Evaluation and comparison of commercially available Aloe vera L. products using
size exclusion chromatography with refractive index and multi-angle laser light
scattering detection.

Turner CE, Williamson DA, Stroud PA, Talley DJ.

Carrington Laboratories, Inc., 2001 Walnut Hill Lane., Irving, TX 75038, USA.
[email protected]

Raw materials supplied as Aloe vera L. (sometimes referred to as Aloe
barbadensis) samples often contain different composition of low and high
molecular weight components when analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. One
major reason for variable compositions of commercial A. vera L. materials is
that they are produced by different manufacturing techniques. Consistent
composition of matter based upon a given standard has been difficult to define.
In addition, the method of quantifying and characterization of these
commercially available materials has not been agreed upon within the industry.
The end user, whether a researcher, a manufacturer, a marketing arm of industry
or the consumer, should know that they are receiving a consistent product. A
blind study of 32 various A. vera L. samples from different manufacturers, and a
prepared sample of fresh A. vera L. gel with the commercial, biologic drug
Acemannan Immunostimulanttrade mark, were analyzed for content of high molecular
weight (polysaccharides) material by size exclusion chromatography with
refractive index detection (SEC/RI) and SEC/RI coupled with multi-angle laser
light scattering (MALLS) detection. Results from the SEC/RI analysis showed
significant variation in the high molecular weight content, and the MALLS
analysis also showed significant variation versus SEC/RI. In addition, HPLC
analysis of the anthraquinone content showed that all samples contained
significantly less than that of the raw, unwashed aloe gel. The variation of
results from all analysis is attributed to differing methods in which the
samples were processed by the different manufacturers.

PMID: 15531289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139: Ceska Slov Farm. 2004 Sep;53(5):248-51.

[Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a
possible role in skin protection]

[Article in Slovak]

Kostalova D, Bezakova L, Oblozinsky M, Kardosova A.

Katedra farmakognozie a botaniky, Farmaceutickej faculty, Univerzity Komenskeho,
Bratislava. [email protected]

Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and
cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its
wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin
disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and
analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins
calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70
kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the
carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1
--> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results
have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the
study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15506709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 Sep;10(5):693-5.

You say goodbye and I say aloe.

Cheifetz AS.

Harvard Medical School, USA.

PMID: 15472535 [PubMed]

141: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Oct;52(10):1262-4.

Chrysophanol glycosides from callus cultures of monocotyledonous Kniphofia spp.

Ito H, Nishida Y, Yamazaki M, Nakahara K, Michalska-Hartwich M, Furmanowa M,
Leistner E, Yoshida T.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

We established callus cultures of the monocotyledonous plants Kniphofia foliosa
and K. tuckii (Asphodelaceae), which produce the anthraquinone derivatives
chrysophanol and its glycosides. The minor product chrysophanol
8-O-beta-gentiobioside was fully characterized by spectroscopic analysis and

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15467251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142: J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Sep 8;52(18):5606-11.

Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

Minamisawa M, Minamisawa H, Yoshida S, Takai N.

Tokyo College of Medico-Pharmaco Technology, 6-5-12 Higashikasai, Edogawa-ku,
Tokyo 134-8530, Japan. [email protected]

We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the
biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse
tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High
adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and
6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea
have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although
activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such
as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical
chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the
test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan
were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient
pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption
capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the
development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded
that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the
economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to
the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15373400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Sep 1;60(1):171-7.

Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo
to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms.

Su CK, Mehta V, Ravikumar L, Shah R, Pinto H, Halpern J, Koong A, Goffinet D, Le

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300
Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5302, USA.

PURPOSE: In a single-institution, double-blind, prospective, randomized trial,
we determined whether oral aloe vera gel can reduce radiation-induced mucositis
in head-and-neck cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We randomized 58
head-and-neck cancer patients between oral aloe vera and placebo. To be included
in this Phase II protocol, patients had to be treated with radiotherapy with
curative intent at Stanford University between February 1999 and March 2002. We
examined patients biweekly for mucositis at 15 head-and-neck subsites and
administered quality-of-life questionnaires. RESULTS: Patients in the aloe and
placebo groups were statistically identical in baseline characteristics. By the
end of treatment, the two groups were also statistically identical in maximal
grade of toxicity, duration of Grade 2 or worse mucositis, quality-of-life
scores, percentage of weight loss, use of pain medications, hydration
requirement, oral infections, and prolonged radiation breaks. CONCLUSION: In our
randomized study, oral aloe vera was not a beneficial adjunct to head-and-neck
radiotherapy. The mean quality-of-life scores were greater in the aloe vera
group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Oral aloe vera
did not improve tolerance to head-and-neck radiotherapy, decrease mucositis,
reduce soreness, or otherwise improve patient well-being.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Clinical Trial, Phase II
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 15337553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144: J Nephrol. 2004 Mar-Apr;17(2):324-8.

Kidney and urinary therapeutics in early medieval monastic medicine.

Riddle JM.

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
[email protected]

This study will explore a few recipes in relation to what monastic medicine
considered kidney disorders. Technical terms, such as strangury, cause us
difficulties in interpreting early medieval monastic medicine. The action
described can vary considerably. For example, he has action for urination
problems that center in the verb: (in translation) "dries out", "quietens",
"expels", "moves", "provoking", and treating "retention of urine". Sometimes the
term "diuretic" is used. The Lorsch monastic book of medical recipes, written
around 800, employed the words "deuritica" and "diureticon" but most of monastic
accounts simply say something similar to that in Reichenau Monastery's recipe
book, 9th or 10th century: "urinam movet/moves the urine"; "urinam
provocat/stimulates urination"; "ad difficultate urine/difficulty in urination".
In order to examine the relationship between diagnosis and therapy, let us turn
to a disease that is difficult even for modern medicine, diabetes. An
examination of several early medieval monastic accounts reveals that they could
have effectively treated diabetes.

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 15293538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

145: Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Oct;38(10):1651-4. Epub 2004 Aug 3.

Possible interaction between sevoflurane and Aloe vera.

Lee A, Chui PT, Aun CS, Gin T, Lau AS.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong
Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China.

OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with massive intraoperative bleeding after oral
consumption of Aloe vera tablets. CASE SUMMARY: A 35-year-old woman lost 5 L of
blood during surgery as a result of a possible herb-drug interaction between
Aloe vera and sevoflurane. DISCUSSION: Aloe vera is a common herb used for
antiinflammatory and antiarthritic activity, as well as antibacterial,
hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering effects. Compounds contained within Aloe vera
can cause a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis, which may inhibit secondary
aggregation of platelets. Sevoflurane inhibits thromboxane A(2) formation by
suppression of cyclooxygenase activity, impairs platelet aggregation, and
prolongs bleeding. Although the vascularity and size of the hemangioma were the
most important factors for the massive intraoperative blood loss, concomitant
use of sevoflurane and Aloe vera played a contributory role. An objective
causality assessment revealed that this adverse event was possible as a result
of the sevoflurane and Aloe vera interaction. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential
herb-drug interaction between Aloe vera and sevoflurane based on the
antiplatelet effects of these 2 agents. Herbal medications with antiplatelet
potential should be discontinued before anesthesia and surgery.

Publication Types:
Case Reports
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15292490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

146: J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8 Suppl):2117S-2119S.

A combination of aloe vera, curcumin, vitamin C, and taurine increases canine
fibroblast migration and decreases tritiated water diffusion across canine
keratinocytes in vitro.

Fray TR, Watson AL, Croft JM, Baker CD, Bailey J, Sirel N, Tobias A, Markwell

WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, UK.
[email protected]

PMID: 15284414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147: Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Jan;42(1):48-52.

Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. leaf gel and pulp extracts on kidney in
type-II diabetic rat models.

Bolkent S, Akev N, Ozsoy N, Sengezer-Inceli M, Can A, Alper O, Yanardag R.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University,
34459-Vezneciler, Istanbul, Turkey.

Significant degenerative changes were observed in the kidney tissue of untreated
neonatal streptozotocin (n0STZ)-induced type-II diabetic rats. These
degenerative changes were diminished in the kidney tissue of diabetic animals
given glibenclamide and Aloe leaf gel and pulp extracts. Kidney lipid
peroxidation levels were increased in diabetic rats compared to healthy rats;
these levels were higher in rats treated with glibenclamide than in those which
received Aloe extracts. Serum urea and creatinine levels were higher in diabetic
rats in comparison to healthy rats. The administration of Aloe gel extract and
glibenclamide decreased serum urea and creatinine levels in comparison to
diabetic controls. Only A. vera leaf gel extract showed improvement both in
histological and biochemical parameters suggesting a protective effect of A.
vera on mild damage caused by type-II diabetes on kidney tissue.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15274480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148: Fitoterapia. 2004 Jul;75(5):520-2.

6-Phenylpyrones and 5-methylchromones from Kenya aloe.

Duri L, Morelli CF, Crippa S, Speranza G.

Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita degli Studi di
Milano, via Venezian 21, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Two new compounds, 10-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl aloenin (4) and
8-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-methyl-(R)-aloesol (6), were isolated from a
commercial sample of Kenya aloe together with the known products aloenin (2),
aloenin 2'-p-coumaroyl ester (3), aloenin aglycone (1), orcinol and
acetylorcinol. All structures were determined or confirmed by spectral analyses.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15261393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149: Shock. 2004 Aug;22(2):151-6.

Survival in a rat model of lethal hemorrhagic shock is prolonged following
resuscitation with a small volume of a solution containing a drag-reducing
polymer derived from aloe vera.

Macias CA, Kameneva MV, Tenhunen JJ, Puyana JC, Fink MP.

Department of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, School of Medicine, University
of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

Drag-reducing polymers (DRP) increase tissue perfusion at constant driving
pressure. We sought to evaluate the effects of small-volume resuscitation with a
solution containing a DRP in a rat model of hemorrhage. Anesthetized rats were
hemorrhaged at a constant rate over 25 min. In protocol A, total blood loss was
2.45 mL/100 g, whereas in protocol B, total blood loss was 3.15 mL/100 g. Five
minutes after hemorrhage, the animals were resuscitated with 7 mL/kg of either
normal saline (NS) or NS containing 50 microg/mL of an aloe vera-derived DRP. In
protocol B, a third group (CON) was not resuscitated. Whole-body O2 consumption
(Vo2) and CO2 production (Vco2) were measured using indirect calorimetry. In
protocol A, 5/10 rats in the NS group and 8/10 rats in the DRP group survived
for 4 h (P = 0.14). Mean arterial pressure was higher in the DRP-treated group
than in the NS-treated group 45 min after resuscitation (89 +/- 8 vs. 68 +/- 5
mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). In protocol B, survival rates over 2 h in the
DRP, NS, and CON groups were 5/15, 1/14, and 0/7, respectively (P < 0.05).
Compared with NS-treated rats, those resuscitated with DRP achieved a higher
peak Vo2 (9.0 +/- 1.0 vs. 6,3+/- 1.0 mL/kg/min) and Vco2 (9.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.0
+/- 1.0 mL/kg/min) after resuscitation. We conclude that resuscitation with a
small volume of DRP prolongs survival in rats with lethal hemorrhagic shock.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15257088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150: Nat Prod Res. 2004 Aug;18(4):373-8.

Synthesis of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-(2'-acetyl-3',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)methylisocoumarin
related to feralolide.

Saeed A.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Base-catalyzed self-condensation of 3,5-dimethoxyhomophthalic acid (2) directly
furnished the
6,8-dimethoxy-3-(2'-carboxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)methylisocoumarin (3) which on
successive treatment with oxalyl chloride, diazomethane and hydrolysis afforded
the corresponding 2'-acetylisocoumarin (5). Complete demethylation of the latter
yielded the 6,8-dihydroxy-3-(2'-acetyl-3',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)methylisocoumarin
(6) related to the natural product feralolide (1a).

PMID: 15214491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151: Health News. 2004 Jun;10(6):2.

Aloe vera helps ulcerative colitis.

[No authors listed]

Publication Types:

PMID: 15199891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul;93(1):89-92.

In vitro antibradykinin activity of Aloe barbadensis gel.

Bautista-Perez R, Segura-Cobos D, Vazquez-Cruz B.

Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Division de Investigacion y Postgrado, Facultad de
Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av., De
los Barrios 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, Mexico, CP 54090, Mexico.

When bradykinin-induced contraction of the isolated rat ileum was tested in the
presence of Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Liliaceae) gel (fraction F-1) and with the
fraction obtained by precipitation of the F-1 with 55% ammonium sulfate (F-55),
the maximal responses to bradykinin were reduced by 10 and 22%, respectively.
Furthermore, purification of the F-55 by filtration through a column of
Sephacryl (S-500-HR) yielded the F-SH fraction, which inhibited the bradykinin
effect by 60%. Purification of the F-SH fraction, by filtration through a column
of Sephadex G-100, brought about four new fractions: F-GA, F-GB, F-GC, and F-GD.
F-GB was the only one that showed the bradykinin inhibition effect (67%).
Clearly, Aloe barbadensis gel contains a material that inhibits the bradykinin
effect, which might explain the anti-inflammatory properties of Aloe

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15182910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul;93(1):33-7.

The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and
acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M.

Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
[email protected]

The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute
gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the
pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was
determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0.
Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid
secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower
concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe
vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the
gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15182901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1423-30.

Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal
herbs: a review.

Tan BK, Vanitha J.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of
Singapore, 18 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597. [email protected]

The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or
to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on
seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species
(Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum
(Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria
species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis
to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these
herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we
observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates
cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive
compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the
traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As
many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the
influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide
useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 15180575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Apr;28(4):349-51.

[Determination of aloin in aloes by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Cao H, Liu Y.

Institute for Drug and Instrument Control of PLA, Beijing 100071, China.

OBJECTIVE: To describe a simple and rapid isocratic reversed-phase high
performance liquid chromatography method for the baseline separation,
identification and assay of aloin in aloes. METHOD: The analytical column was a
ZORBAX SB-C18(4.6 mm x 250 mm) filled with a 5 microns stationary phase. The
mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (25:75); the flow-rate was 1
mL.min-1. The injection volume was 10 microL. The DAD detector was set at 355
nm. RESULT: The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.17-5.9
micrograms (r = 0.9999). The average recovery of the method was 98.6%, RSD 1.32%
(n = 6). CONCLUSION: The results showed that this method was reliable and
accurate. The method was applied to eleven Cape and East African aloes of
different origin.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15139148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Magn Reson Chem. 2004 Jun;42(6):564-6.

Complete 1H and 13C assignments of

Meng Y, Yan BZ, Wang HM, Hu GF, Liu FY, Song YG, Liu Y.

State Key laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species,
Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.

1H and 13C NMR spectra of 8-C-beta-D-[2-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]
glucopyranosyl-2-(2-hydroxy)propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone were completely
assigned by 2D NMR observations. Especially the 1H assignments of the glucosyl
and hydroxyl protons were achieved by utilizing HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY and DEPT
techniques together with a heavy water exchange 1H NMR experiment. Copyright
2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15137050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157: Magn Reson Chem. 2004 Jun;42(6):561-3.

A complete 1H and 13C NMR data assignment for the diterpene methyl
(-)-zanzibarate by 2D spectroscopy and NOE experiments.

Imamura PM, Miranda PC, Giacomini RA.

Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo,

The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of methyl (-)-zanzibarate (1), an ent-labdanic
diterpene isolated from the epicarp of Hymenaea courbaril var. altissima
(Leguminosaea, Cesalpinoideae, Detariae), was fully assigned by COSY
experiments, 13C/1H shift correlation diagrams and NOE experiments. Copyright
2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15137049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 May;27(5):694-8.

Effect of Aloe vera leaf gel and pulp extracts on the liver in type-II diabetic
rat models.

Can A, Akev N, Ozsoy N, Bolkent S, Arda BP, Yanardag R, Okyar A.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Turkey.

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Aloe vera leaf pulp and
gel extracts on the liver tissue of neonatal streptozotocin (n0STZ)-induced
type-II diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were separated into four groups and
each group was given the following samples by gavage, daily for 15 d: phosphate
buffered saline (PBS; diabetic control), Aloe leaf pulp extract, Aloe leaf gel
extract, glibenclamide. Liver tissues were examined histologically. The markers
of oxidative stress: glutathione (GSH), non-enzymatic glycosylation (NEG) and
lipid peroxidation (LPO), were determined in liver tissue. Biochemical
parameters for liver function: serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine
transaminase (ALP) activities, were evaluated. All parameters were also
determined in healthy (non diabetic) rats for comparison. In the diabetic
control group, the degenerative changes in liver tissue were remarkable, while
in the diabetic groups given Aloe pulp and gel extracts and glibenclamide, the
damage to the liver tissue was decreased. The increase of GSH and the decrease
of NEG and LPO in liver tissues with the treatment of Aloe gel extract, is
consistent with the beneficial effect of Aloe. Serum ALP and ALT activities were
also decreased in the groups given Aloe gel extract. It was concluded that Aloe
gel extract has a protective effect comparable to glibenclamide against
hepatotoxicity produced by diabetes if used in the treatment of type-II

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15133247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):225-30.

Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia
insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro
production of estradiol.

Telefo PB, Moundipa PF, Tchouanguep FM.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box
67, Dschang, Cameroon. [email protected]

In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf
mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata
and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to
treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat
ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant
extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of
estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly
increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The
different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of
estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by
ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml)
and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly
attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the
plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

PMID: 15120443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):61-6.

Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in
experimental rats.

Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Ravi K, Subramanian S.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Chennai,
Tamil Nadu, India.

In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of
hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral
administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of
body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c)
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain
the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

PMID: 15117555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

161: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44(2):91-6.

Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic
industries--a review.

Eshun K, He Q.

Southern Yangtze University, School of Food Science and Technology, Wuxi,

Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last
several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications
have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable
contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of
Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various
carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic
and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera
have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s)
is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be
done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the
functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be
employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its
field of utilization.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15116756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: J Wound Care. 2004 Apr;13(4):157-8.

Phytotherapy: an alternative treatment for non-healing ulcers.

Avijgan M.

Shahr-e-kord University of Medical Sciences, Shahr-e-kord, Iran.
[email protected]

There are few reports in the literature on the effectiveness of complimentary
therapies on chronic wounds. Use of an aloe vera gel resulted in full healing
after treatments such as antibiotics, surgical debridement and skin grafting had

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 15114830 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003554.

Dressings and topical agents for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention.

Vermeulen H, Ubbink D, Goossens A, de Vos R, Legemate D.

Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre at the University of Amsterdam,
Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.

BACKGROUND: Many different wound dressings and topical applications are used to
cover surgical wounds healing by secondary intention. It is not known whether
these dressings heal wounds at different rates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the
effectiveness of dressings and topical agents on surgical wounds healing by
secondary intention SEARCH STRATEGY: We sought relevant trials from the Cochrane
Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Trials
Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases in March 2002. SELECTION
CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness
of dressings and topical agents for surgical wounds healing by secondary
intention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Eligibility for inclusion was confirmed
by two reviewers who independently judged the methodological quality of the
trials according to the Dutch Cochrane Centre list of factors relating to
internal and external validity. Two reviewers summarised data from eligible
studies using a data extraction sheet, any disagreements were referred to a
third reviewer. MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen reports of 13 RCTs on dressings or
topical agents for postoperative wounds healing by secondary intention were
identified.WOUND HEALING: Whilst a single small trial of aloe vera
supplementation vs gauze suggests delayed healing with aloe vera, the results of
this trial are un interpretable since there was a large differential loss to
follow up. A plaster cast applied to an amputation stump accelerated wound
healing compared with elastic compression, WMD -25.60 days, 95% CI -49.08 to
-2.12 days (1 trial). There were no statistically significant differences in
healing for other dressing comparisons (e.g. gauze, foam, alginate; 11 trials).
PAIN: Gauze was associated with significantly more pain for patients than other
dressings (4 trials).PATIENT SATISFACTION: Patients treated with gauze were less
satisfied compared with those receiving alternative dressings (3 trials). COSTS:
Gauze is inexpensive but its use is associated with the use of significantly
more nursing time than foam (2 trials).LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY: Four trials
showed no difference in length of hospital stay. One trial found shorter
hospital stay in people after amputation when plaster casts were applied
compared with elastic compression (WMD -30.10 days; 95% CI -49.82 to -10.38).
REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only small, poor quality trials; the evidence
is therefore insufficient to determine whether the choice of dressing or topical
agent affects the healing of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention.
Foam is best studied as an alternative for gauze and appears to be preferable as
to pain reduction, patient satisfaction and nursing time.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15106207 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 May;92(1):57-60.

Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of
traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

Moody JO, Adebiyi OA, Adeniyi BA.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, P.O. Box
21242 Ibadan, Nigeria. [email protected]

The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw
materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies
guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and
anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro
agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and
without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the
soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps
are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants
used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the
anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial
and fungal test organisms. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 15099848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: J Clin Neurosci. 2004 May;11(4):397-402.

Susceptibility of hippocampus and cerebral cortex to oxidative damage in
streptozotocin treated mice: prevention by extracts of Withania somnifera and
Aloe vera.

Parihar MS, Chaudhary M, Shetty R, Hemnani T.

Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Life Science, School of Studies in Zoology,
Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India.

Diabetes mellitus is reported to impair the memory function in experimental
animals. Since the mammalian hippocampus and cerebral cortex play a pivotal role
in a diverse set of cognitive functions, such as novelty detection and memory,
we examined the vulnerability of cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain to
oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice. We next examined the
attenuating effect of extracts of Withania somnifera and Aloe vera on prevention
of hippocampal and cortical cell degenerations. Doses of both plant extracts
given to experimental animals were based on the evaluation of their total
antioxidant activity and also their potency to reduce Fe(3+). We assayed lipid
peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC) in both regions of the brain and
observed the changes in memory and motor behavioral functions in diabetic and
control mice. The results showed a significant ( [Formula: see text] ) increase
in LPO and PC in hippocampus and cortical regions of STZ diabetic mice. We also
found a significant impairment in both motor and memory behavioral functions in
diabetic mice. However, when diabetic mice were supplemented with the extracts
of Withania somnifera and Aloe vera, the oxidative damage in both brain regions
was reduced as marked by a significant ( [Formula: see text] ) declines in both
LPO and PC. The combination of extracts of Withania somnifera and Aloe vera was
more effective in reducing oxidative damage in brain regions than the
supplementation of single plant extract. The combination also lowered the blood
glucose level in comparison to STZ diabetic mice. Memory impairment and motor
dysfunction were also improved by the plant extracts supplementation. We
conclude that impairments in the hippocampus and cortex in STZ diabetic mice are
associated with an increased free radical mediated oxidative damage and that the
supplementation of plant extracts showed preventive effects in attenuating
oxidative damage in both brain regions possibly via antioxidative mechanisms.

PMID: 15080956 [PubMed - in process]

166: J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Apr;198(4):583-90.

The prevalence and predictors of herbal medicine use in surgical patients.

Adusumilli PS, Ben-Porat L, Pereira M, Roesler D, Leitman IM.

Department of Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid rise in herbal medicine consumption, explicitly
eliciting and documenting herbal medicine usage among surgical patients is poor.
STUDY DESIGN: A survey by means of a self-administered questionnaire was
conducted among patients undergoing elective surgery inquiring into the
self-health perceptions, herbal medicine use, and communication of such usage to
surgical health-care staff. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent (n =2,186) of all the
patients undergoing elective surgery completed the survey during a 10-week
period. Fifty-seven percent of respondents admitted to using herbal medicine at
some point in their life, 38% in the past 2 years (eg, echinacea [48%], aloe
vera [30%], ginseng [28%], garlic [27%], and ginkgo biloba [22%] were the most
common). One in six respondents continued the use of herbal medicine during the
month of surgery. Herbal medicine usage was significantly higher among patients
undergoing a gynecologic procedure (odds ratio [OR] 1.68; 95% confidence
interval [CI] 1.29 to 2.18) and patients with a self-perception of good health
(OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.69); it was lower among patients with a history of
pulmonary symptoms (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.94), African Americans (OR 0.69;
95% CI 0.51 to 0.95), in patients having a primary care physician (OR 0.71; 95%
CI 0.52 to 0.98), in patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (OR 0.46; 95%
CI 0.32 to 0.68), and in patients undergoing vascular surgery (OR 0.19; 95% CI
0.07 to 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Herbal medicine use is common among surgical
patients and is consistent with the substantial increase in the use of
alternative medical therapies. Awareness of this rising herbal medicine usage
and documentation of the use of herbal medicines by surgical health-care staff
is important to prevent, recognize, and treat potential problems that may arise
from herbal medications taken alone or in conjunction with conventional
medications during the perioperative period.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15051013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr 1;19(7):739-47.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for
active ulcerative colitis.

Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, Holt H, Tsironi E, De Silva A, Jewell DP,
Rampton DS.

Centre for Gastroenterology, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Science, Barts
and The London, Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

BACKGROUND: The herbal preparation, aloe vera, has been claimed to have
anti-inflammatory effects and, despite a lack of evidence of its therapeutic
efficacy, is widely used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AIM: To
perform a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and
safety of aloe vera gel for the treatment of mildly to moderately active
ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Forty-four evaluable hospital out-patients were
randomly given oral aloe vera gel or placebo, 100 mL twice daily for 4 weeks, in
a 2 : 1 ratio. The primary outcome measures were clinical remission (Simple
Clinical Colitis Activity Index </= 2), sigmoidoscopic remission (Baron score
</= 1) and histological remission (Saverymuttu score </= 1). Secondary outcome
measures included changes in the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index
(improvement was defined as a decrease of >/= 3 points; response was defined as
remission or improvement), Baron score, histology score, haemoglobin, platelet
count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and albumin. RESULTS:
Clinical remission, improvement and response occurred in nine (30%), 11 (37%)
and 14 (47%), respectively, of 30 patients given aloe vera, compared with one
(7%) [P = 0.09; odds ratio, 5.6 (0.6-49)], one (7%) [P = 0.06; odds ratio, 7.5
(0.9-66)] and two (14%) [P < 0.05; odds ratio, 5.3 (1.0-27)], respectively, of
14 patients taking placebo. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index and
histological scores decreased significantly during treatment with aloe vera (P =
0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not with placebo. Sigmoidoscopic scores
and laboratory variables showed no significant differences between aloe vera and
placebo. Adverse events were minor and similar in both groups of patients.
CONCLUSION: Oral aloe vera taken for 4 weeks produced a clinical response more
often than placebo; it also reduced the histological disease activity and
appeared to be safe. Further evaluation of the therapeutic potential of aloe
vera gel in inflammatory bowel disease is needed.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15043514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Mar;18(2):112-6.

Determination of three compounds in Aloe vera by capillary electrophoresis.

Yang Y, Wang H, Guo L, Chen Y.

Laboratory of Chemicalbiology, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing 100080, People's Republic of China.

A capillary electrophoretic assay for determining aloe-emodin (AE), methyl
p-coumarate (MC), and
marin (DDI) in Aloe vera has been developed. Baseline separation was achieved
within 15 min using a running buffer of 20 mm borax containing 10% (v/v)
acetonitrile at pH 10.5. A linear relationship between the peak area and the
concentration of the analytes was found in the ranges 5-500, 10-1000 and 2-1000
micro g/mL for AE, MC and DDI, respectively, with correlation coefficients of
0.9992-0.9998. The relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area
were within 0.17-0.19 and 1.52-3.37%, respectively. The recoveries of AE, MC and
DDI were 105, 102 and 96.4%. The contents of AE, MC and DDI in Aloe vera were
measured to be 5.13, 0.768 and 1.30 mg/g, respectively. Copyright 2004 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15039963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Mar;4(3):411-8.

Mannan from Aloe saponaria inhibits tumoral cell activation and proliferation.

Sampedro MC, Artola RL, Murature M, Murature D, Ditamo Y, Roth GA, Kivatinitz S.

Departamento de Quimica Biologica-CIQUIBIC, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas,
Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cuidad Universitaria, C5000GYA-Cordoba 5016,

In this study, we tested the antiproliferative effects of mannan from Aloe
saponaria using normal murine (SpMC) and human cells (PBMC) and several tumoral
cell lines. Employing flow cytometry, it could be determined that mannan
inhibits the proliferative response in normal and tumoral cells. Mannan affects
the expression of CD3(+) SpMC indicating that mannan inhibits mainly T
lymphocyte proliferative response. Also in SpMC cultured with or without mitogen
mannan produces an increase of an activation marker (CD25). On C1498 cell line,
mannan reduces CD3 expression and abolishes the CD25 expression. In conclusion,
mannan has a dual beneficial effect when applied to normal and tumoral cells at
the same time by inhibiting the activation of cancer cells and improving that of
normal ones.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15037218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170: Oncol Nurs Forum. 2004 Mar-Apr;31(2):237-47.

Comment in:
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2004 Sep;31(5):867-70; author reply 867-70.

Prevention and treatment of acute radiation dermatitis: a literature review.

Wickline MM.

Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, Washington, USA. [email protected]

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To review historical and current research data on prevention
and treatment of acute radiation dermatitis. DATA SOURCES: 18 research trials
and 1 case report published from 1967-2001 and 1 unpublished research trial from
1972. DATA SYNTHESIS: Washing the skin with mild soap and water and the hair
with mild shampoo is safe during radiation therapy. Biafine (Medix
Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Largo, FL), chamomile cream, almond ointment, topical
vitamin C, and gentian violet have not been proven effective and should not be
used. Transparent, hydrocolloid, and hydrogel dressings have been beneficial, as
have sucralfate cream and corticosteroid cream. Aloe vera may be beneficial and
is not harmful. CONCLUSIONS: The existing scientific data are lacking in
quantity and quality. The current body of evidence is unable to provide
clinicians with comprehensive guidelines for prevention and management of acute
radiation dermatitis. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Nurse clinicians and nurse
scientists must partner to conduct further research to add to the limited
resources about the prevention and management of acute radiation dermatitis and
develop comprehensive evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15017440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

171: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):239-47.

Effects of Aloe preparation on the histamine-induced gastric secretion in rats.

Suvitayavat W, Sumrongkit C, Thirawarapan SS, Bunyapraphatsara N.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447
Sri-Ayudhaya Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. [email protected]

The effects of Aloe preparation containing 80% Aloe gel on the gastric acid,
pepsin and mucus secretion were evaluated in histamine-induced gastric fistula
model in rats by comparison to the effects of placebo and fresh Aloe gel. Aloe
preparation and placebo at a dose of 8 ml/kg inhibited gastric acid but
stimulated pepsin secretory rates. On the other hand, fresh Aloe gel at a dose
of 6.4 ml/kg prolonged histamine stimulatory effects on the gastric acid
secretion while it inhibited gastric pepsin secretion. Both Aloe preparation and
placebo increased soluble mucus secretory rate in a dose-dependent manner
whereas fresh Aloe gel had no effect. The Aloe preparation and placebo at a dose
of 8 ml/kg increased the gastric visible mucus content while fresh Aloe gel
slightly increased the visible mucus content. This study reveals that fresh Aloe
gel prolonged the effects of histamine-stimulated acid secretion and inhibits
pepsin secretion in histamine-treated rats. The Aloe preparation inhibited
gastric acid, stimulated pepsin and mucus secretion. However, there were no
difference in the secretory rates of Aloe preparation and placebo-treated rats
at the same doses. This result indicates that the observed effects of Aloe
preparation was mostly due to other compositions of the preparation rather than
Aloe gel itself. Since the highest dose of Aloe gel preparation used in the
present study was limited by the volume of the instilled solution in gastric
fistula model, the effects of Aloe vera gel were not able to be observed in the
present study might be due to the inadequate dose of the preparation.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15013187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Mar 1;19(5):521-7.

Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro.

Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS.

Centre for Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Institute of Cellular and
Molecular Science, Barts and the London, Queen Mary School of Medicine and
Dentistry, London, UK.

BACKGROUND: Oral aloe vera gel is widely used by patients with inflammatory
bowel disease and is under therapeutic evaluation for this condition. AIM: To
assess the effects of aloe vera in vitro on the production of reactive oxygen
metabolites, eicosanoids and interleukin-8, all of which may be pathogenic in
inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: The anti-oxidant activity of aloe vera was
assessed in two cell-free, radical-generating systems and by the
chemiluminescence of incubated colorectal mucosal biopsies. Eicosanoid
production by biopsies and interleukin-8 release by CaCo2 epithelial cells in
the presence of aloe vera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: Aloe vera gel had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen
metabolite production; 50% inhibition occurred at 1 in 1000 dilution in the
phycoerythrin assay and at 1 in 10-50 dilution with biopsies. Aloe vera
inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 by 30% at 1 in 50 dilution (P =
0.03), but had no effect on thromboxane B2 production. The release of
interleukin-8 by CaCo2 cells fell by 20% (P < 0.05) with aloe vera diluted at 1
in 100, but not at 1 in 10 or 1 in 1000 dilutions. CONCLUSION: The
anti-inflammatory actions of aloe vera gel in vitro provide support for the
proposal that it may have a therapeutic effect in inflammatory bowel disease.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14987320 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

173: Biorheology. 2004;41(1):53-64.

Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in
acute animal experiments.

Kameneva MV, Wu ZJ, Uraysh A, Repko B, Litwak KN, Billiar TR, Fink MP, Simmons
RL, Griffith BP, Borovetz HS.

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, University
of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA.
[email protected]

Over the past several decades, blood-soluble drag reducing polymers (DRPs) have
been shown to significantly enhance hemodynamics in various animal models when
added to blood at nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, the effects of
the DRPs on blood circulation were tested in anesthetized rats exposed to acute
hemorrhagic shock. The animals were acutely resuscitated either with a 2.5%
dextran solution (Control) or using the same solution containing 0.0005% or 5
parts per million (ppm) concentration of one of two blood soluble DRPs: high
molecular weight (MW=3500 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG-3500) or a DRP extracted
from Aloe vera (AVP). An additional group of animals was resuscitated with
0.0075% (75 ppm) polyethylene glycol of molecular weight of 200 kDa (PEG-200),
which possesses no drag-reducing ability. All of the animals were observed for
two hours following the initiation of fluid resuscitation or until they expired.
We found that infusion of the DRP solutions significantly improved tissue
perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and two-hour survival rate, the latter from 19%
(Control) and 14% (PEG-200) to 100% (AVP) and 100% (PEG-3500). Furthermore, the
Control and PEG-200 animals that survived required three times more fluid to
maintain their blood pressure than the AVP and PEG-3500 animals. Several
hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these observed beneficial
hemodynamic effects of DRPs are discussed. Our findings suggest that the
drag-reducing polymers warrant further investigation as a potential clinical
treatment for hemorrhagic shock and possibly other microcirculatory disorders.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14967890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2003 Nov;32(6):590-3.

[90-day subchronic toxicity study of aloe whole-leaf powder]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhou Y, Feng Y, Wang H, Yang H.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center For Disease Control and
Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

90-day subchronic toxicity study of aloe whole-leaf powder was conducted to
observe the effect of aloe whole-leaf powder on health. 88 SD rats were divided
randomly into 4 groups, and each group consisted of 11 males and 11 females. The
animals in group 2-4 received aloe whole-leaf powder mixed in regular rodent
diet at doses of 2, 4 and 8 g/kg BW (by rate of 2.5, 5 and 10 percent in diet)
for 90 days. The animals in group 1 received the regular rodent diet. The
results showed that aloe whole-leaf powder promoted defecation of rats. Food
efficiency and body weight males exposed to 8 g/kg BW were significantly less
than those of the controls. Food efficiency males exposed to 4 g/kg BW was
significantly decreased, but body weight was not affected. No adverse effect
were observed on food efficiency and body weight by males exposed to 2 g/kg BW
and all exposed groups of females. Relative kidney weight was significnatly
increased in males exposed to 8 g/kg BW and females exposed to 2 g/kg BW or
greater. Relative testis weight of rats exposed to 4 and 8 g/kg BW were
significantly increased compared to the control groups. Aloe whole-leaf powder
at the dose of 2, 4 and 8 g/kg BW did not have adverse effect on hematology,
serum AST, ALT, TC, TG, Cr as well as NAG activity of urine, serum BUN was
significantly increased at the dose of 8 g/kg BW. Pathology findings: the
incidences of pigmentation in renal tubular, mesenteric lymph nodes and lamina
propria of the colonic mucosa, and proliferation in mesenteric lymph nodes were
significantly increased at all of the exposed groups, but no pigmentation in
colonic mucosa was observed at the dose of 2 g/kg BW. No pathological changes
were observed in livers, spleens, testes (or ovaries). It was concluded that
observed adverse effect level of aloe whole-leaf powder was 2 g/kg BW (LOAEL of
aloin was 11.8 g/kg BW).

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14963911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

175: Glycobiology. 2004 Jun;14(6):501-10. Epub 2004 Jan 22.

Chemical and biological characterization of a polysaccharide biological response
modifier from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg.

Leung MY, Liu C, Zhu LF, Hui YZ, Yu B, Fung KP.

Institute of Chinese Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T.,
Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

Three purified polysaccharide fractions designated as PAC-I, PAC-II, and PAC-III
were prepared from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. by membrane
fractionation and gel filtration HPLC. The polysaccharide fractions had
molecular weights of 10,000 kDa, 1300 kDa, and 470 kDa, respectively. The major
sugar residue in the polysaccharide fractions is mannose, which was found to be
91.5% in PAC-I, 87.9% in PAC-II, and 53.7% in PAC-III. The protein contents in
the polysaccharide fractions was undetectable. NMR study of PAC-I and PAC-II
demonstrated the polysaccharides shared the same structure. The main skeletons
of PAC-I and PAC-II are beta-(1-->4)-D linked mannose with acetylation at C-6 of
manopyranosyl. The polysaccharide fractions stimulated peritoneal macrophages,
splenic T and B cell proliferation, and activated these cells to secrete
TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, INF-gamma, IL-2, and IL-6. The polysaccharides were
nontoxic and exhibited potent indirect antitumor response in murine model.
PAC-I, which had the highest mannose content and molecular weight, was found to
be the most potent biological response modifier of the three fractions. Our
results suggested that the potency of aloe polysaccharide fraction increases as
mannose content and molecular weight of the polysaccharide fraction increase.

PMID: 14739149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

176: Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2003 Oct;36(5):361-7.

[Development of aloin cells and accumulation of anthraquinone in aloe leaf]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang TX, Li JY, Shen ZG, Hu ZH.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069. [email protected]

The development of aloin cells and its relationship with the accumulation of
anthraquinone in aloe leaf were investigated with the methods of paraffin
section, semi-thin section, histochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. The
results showed: cells rounded the procambium bundle differentiated into bundle
sheath at the initial stage of procambium bundle developing into vascular
bundle. When the sieve tube members appeared in protophloem, there were a lay of
procambium bundle cells reserved between the sieve tube members and bundle
sheath. These cells began to devise, then developed into aloin cells through
enlargement of volume and vacuolization with the differentiation of metaphloem
and metaxylem. So the aloin cells were special phloem parenchyma cells because
they shared the same origin with the other phloem cells. The investigation of
histochemistry reflected that there were aloin precipitate in the central
vacuole of aloin cells after the material was soaked in the liquid of 1% lead
acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2]. In addition, the yellow fluorescence was observed in
aloin cells when the section of fresh material was investigated under the
fluorescent microscope with blue light, which suggested the aloin cells of
vascular bundles were the mainly storage site of anthraquinone.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14724948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

177: Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(3-4):239-46.

Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in burn
wounded rats.

Duansak D, Somboonwong J, Patumraj S.

Inter-Department of Physiology, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The effects of Aloe vera on microcirculation and levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6
were investigated in rats after inducing burn. Seventy-two male Wistar Furth
rats were equally divided into four groups as follow: controls (CON), untreated
burn-wound rats (BURN), normal saline-treated burn-wound rats (BURN-NSS) and
Aloe vera-treated burn-wound rats (BURN-ALOE). The animals in each group were
equally subdivided into three subgroups for the study on day 3, 7 and 14
post-burn. Dorsal skinfold chamber preparation and intravital fluorescence
microscopic technique were performed to examine leukocyte adhesion on
postcapillary venules. ELISA techniques were performed to examine serum
TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels. It was found that the amount of leukocyte adhesion
was significantly reduced in the BURN-ALOE group compared to rats in the BURN
group on day 14. Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were also decreased significantly
compared to BURN at all three monitored time points. Aloe vera could inhibit the
inflammatory process following burn injury, as characterized by the reduction of
leukocyte adhesion, as well as those pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14724347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178: Pharmazie. 2003 Dec;58(12):929-31.

Effectiveness of Aloe vera on the antioxidant status of different tissues in
irradiated rats.

Saada HN, Ussama ZS, Mahdy AM.

Department of Radiation Biology, National Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. [email protected]

This study was performed to evaluate the role of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis
Miller) on the antioxidant status in different tissues of animals whole body
exposed to 7 Gy gamma radiations, delivered as a shot dose. Aloe vera (leaf
juice filtrate) was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg body weight/day), by
gavage, 5 days before irradiation and 10 days after irradiation. Experimental
investigations performed 3, 7 and 10 days after exposure to radiation showed
that Aloe vera treatment has significantly minimized the radiation-induced
increase in the amount of malondialdehyde in liver, lungs, and kidney tissues of
irradiated rats. Significant amelioration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
catalase activities was observed from the 3rd up to the 10th days for lungs, on
the 7th and 10th days for kidneys and at 10 days for liver. Data obtained showed
that for the different tissues, improvement in the decrease of reduced
glutathione (GSH) contents was obvious on the 10th day after irradiation.
Treatment with Aloe vera was also effective in minimizing the radiation-induced
increase in plasma glucose levels throughout the experimental period, while it
has not ameliorated the increase in plasma insulin levels. It could be concluded
that the synergistic relationship between the elements found in the leaf of Aloe
vera could be a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of the antioxidant

PMID: 14703976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179: Biofactors. 2003;18(1-4):255-64.

The protective and healing effects of a natural antioxidant formulation based on
ubiquinol and Aloe vera against dextran sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in

Korkina L, Suprun M, Petrova A, Mikhal'chik E, Luci A, De Luca C.

Department of Molecular Biology, Russian State Medical University,
Ostrovityanova 1, Moscow 117513, Russia. [email protected]

Oxygen/nitrogen reactive species (ROS/RNS) are currently implicated in the
pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, drawing attention on the potential
prophylactic and healing properties of antioxidants, scavengers, chelators. We
evaluated the possible protective/curative effects of a natural antioxidant
preparation based on Aloe vera and ubiquinol, against intestinal inflammation,
lesions, and pathological alterations of the intestinal electrophysiological
activity and motility, in a rat model of DSS-induced colitis. 5% dextrane
sulfate (DDS) (3 days), followed by 1% DSS (4 days) was administered in drinking
water. The antioxidant formulation (25 mg/kg) was delivered with a pre-treatment
protocol, or simultaneously or post-colitis induction. Spontaneous and
acetylcholine-stimulated electrical activity were impaired in the small
intestine and in distal colon, upon exposure to DSS only. Severe inflammation
occurred, with increased myeloperoxidase activity, and significant alterations
of the oxidant/antioxidant status in colonic tissue and peritoneal cells.
Lipoperoxidation, superoxide production, glutathione peroxidase and
glutathione-S-transferase activities, and reduced glutathione content increased,
whilst superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were sharply suppressed in
colon tissue. ROS/RNS formation in peritoneal cells was strongly inhibited.
Inflammation, electrical/mechanical impairment in the gut, and a great majority
of oxidative stress parameters were improved substantially by pre-treatment with
the antioxidant preparation, but not by simultaneous administration or

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14695941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180: J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 17;51(26):7788-91.

Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller)

Hu Y, Xu J, Hu Q.

College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing
210095, PRC.

The polysaccharide and flavonoid concentrations of two-, three-, and
four-year-old Aloe vera were determined, and their antioxidant activities were
evaluated compared to BHT and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH radical scavenging
method and the linoleic acid system at 100 microg of soluble solids per mL of
ethanol. The results showed that three-year-old Aloe vera contained
significantly higher levels of polysaccharides and flavonoids than two- and
four-year-old Aloe vera, and no significant differences in flavonoid levels were
found between three- and four-year-old Aloe vera. All the aloe extracts showed
significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts
and reference compounds followed the order: three-year-old Aloe vera > BHT >
four-year-old Aloe vera > alpha-tocopherol > two-year-old Aloe vera. The
three-year-old extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity of
72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT at 70.52% and
alpha-tocopherol at 65.20%. These data suggest that the growth stage plays a
vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14664546 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181: Altern Med Rev. 2003 Nov;8(4):359-77.

Nutritional support for wound healing.

MacKay D, Miller AL.

Thorne Research, Inc., PO Box 25, Dover, ID 83825, USA. [email protected]

Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention,
involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types,
cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity,
which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional
deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required
for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is
required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune
function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function,
and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in
the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive.
Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and
surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for
hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely
essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids
arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The
botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades,
both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies
are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for
these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with
minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to
explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14653765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182: Am J Infect Control. 2003 Dec;31(8):516.

Comment on:
Am J Infect Control. 2003 Feb;31(1):40-2.

Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with
occupational exposure.

Mitchell H.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14647119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

183: Burns. 2003 Dec;29(8):834-6.

Retardation of wound healing by silver sulfadiazine is reversed by Aloe vera and

Muller MJ, Hollyoak MA, Moaveni Z, Brown TL, Herndon DN, Heggers JP.

Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit, Middlemore Hospital, P.O. Box 93311, Otahuhu,
Auckland, New Zealand.

Inhibition of wound contraction by topical anti microbial agents has been
described. The purpose of this study was to further investigate that phenomenon
and to explore the effect that other agents such as Aloe vera might have on this
process. Full-thickness excised wounds were created on the dorsum of
Sprague-Dawley rats under anaesthesia. The wounds were treated with topical
agents three times daily for fourteen days, then observed until healed. Groups
were: saline control, placebo (aqueous cream) control, silver sulphadiazine
(SSD) cream 1%, SSD 0.5%, SSD 1% with Aloe vera, SSD 1% with nystatin, nystatin.
Wound surface areas were measured each three days. Time to 50% and 90% healing
was compared using ANOVA. Wound half-life and healing times were shortest in the
SSD/Aloe vera and nystatin groups (P<0.05) and longest in the 1% SSD and saline
control groups. The placebo group (aqueous cream) healed in a significantly
shorter time (P<0.05) than the control (saline) group. Wound contraction was
delayed by saline and SSD. Nystatin and Aloe vera, when added to SSD, reversed
that effect.These data suggest that a dry wound (saline) heals slowly. Infection
control without delay of wound healing is most appealing and clinical trials are

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14636760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

184: J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Oct;9(5):711-8.

Effects of Aloe vera on gap junctional intercellular communication and
proliferation of human diabetic and nondiabetic skin fibroblasts.

Abdullah KM, Abdullah A, Johnson ML, Bilski JJ, Petry K, Redmer DA, Reynolds LP,
Grazul-Bilska AT.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of North Dakota, Grand
Forks, ND, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera on gap junctional intercellular
communication (GJIC) and proliferation of human skin fibroblasts in the presence
or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). DESIGN: In vitro study
using human type II diabetic and nondiabetic skin fibroblast cell lines. SETTING
AND SUBJECTS: Diabetic (n = 4) and nondiabetic (n = 4) human skin fibroblast
cell lines were purchased from Coriell Institute for Medical Research (Camden,
NJ). The cells were cultured with or without Aloe vera extract in increasing
concentrations (0%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%; v/v) in culture
medium and with or without FGF-2 (30 ng/mL). MEASUREMENTS: GJIC was evaluated
after 48-hour incubation with treatments by laser cytometry. Cells were counted
after 72-hour incubation with treatments by using a Coulter counter. RESULTS:
The rate of GJIC was greater (p < 0.01) for diabetic than for nondiabetic
fibroblasts (3.5 +/- 0.1 versus 3.0 +/- 0.1% per minute during the first 4
minutes after photobleaching). GJIC was increased ( p < 0.05) for diabetic
fibroblasts in the presence of 2.5% and 5% of Aloe vera extract (4.2 +/- 0.1 and
4.0 +/- 0.2 versus 3.5 +/- 0.1% per minute for control, respectively). FGF-2
stimulated (p < 0.01) GJIC for diabetic (4.0 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.1% per
minute for control) and nondiabetic (3.5 +/- 0.1 versus 3.0 +/- 0.1% per minute
for control) fibroblasts. Aloe vera extract did not affect GJIC of nondiabetic
fibroblast cultured without FGF-2. However, Aloe vera extract decreased (p <
0.05) FGF-2 stimulatory effects on GJIC of diabetic and nondiabetic fibroblasts.
Proliferation of diabetic fibroblasts was increased (p < 0.05) by 1.25% and 2.5%
Aloe vera extract in medium. Proliferation of nondiabetic fibroblasts was not
affected by Aloe vera extract. FGF-2 increased (p < 0.05) proliferation of
nondiabetic fibroblasts and FGF-2 did not affect proliferation of diabetic
fibroblasts. Aloe vera extract decreased (p < 0.05) FGF-2 stimulatory effects on
proliferation of nondiabetic fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate
that Aloe vera has the ability to stimulate GJIC and proliferation of human skin
fibroblasts in diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, these results indicate that Aloe
vera contains a compound(s) that neutralizes, binds with FGF-2 receptor, or
otherwise alters signaling pathways for FGF-2. By affecting both GJIC and
proliferation of diabetic fibroblasts, Aloe vera may improve wound healing in
diabetes mellitus.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 14629848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

185: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2003 Aug;44(4):203-7.

[Identification of Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

[Article in Japanese]

Shioda H, Satoh K, Nagai F, Okubo T, Seto T, Hamano T, Kamimura H, Kano I.

Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health: 3-24-1, Hyakunin-cho,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan.

Juice and integument of leaves of 3 Aloe species, Aloe vera, A. ferox and A.
africana, are not allowed to be used as food according to the Pharmaceutical
Affairs Law in Japan. On the other hand, whole leaves of A. arborescens can be
used as food. The present study was designed to distinguish Aloe species by
random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA was isolated from fresh
and dried leaves of the 4 Aloe species. Five out of 32 different 10-mer primers
examined were useful for analysis. By comparison of the characteristic bands of
PCR products on agarose gel, it was possible to distinguish the 4 species. Thus,
the botanical species of Aloe in commercial food products can be identified by
RAPD analysis.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 14606430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

186: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;49(4):292-6.

Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and
oxidative status in aged rats.

Lim BO, Seong NS, Choue RW, Kim JD, Lee HY, Kim SY, Yu BP, Jeon TI, Park DK.

Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, 1
Hoeki-Dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Korea. [email protected]

In the current study, we show the anti-oxidative and hypocholesterol effects of
aloe vera in the liver. Male specific pathogen-free (SPF) Fischer 344 rats were
randomly assigned to one of four groups: Group A (control) was fed test chow
without aloe supplementation; Group B was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight
basis) freeze-dried aloe filet; Group C was fed a diet containing a 1% (per
weight basis) charcoal-processed, freeze-dried aloe filet; and Group D was fed a
diet containing a charcoal-processed freeze-dried, whole leaf aloe (0.02% per
weight basis) in the drinking water. Our results show that a life-long intake of
aloe had superior anti-oxidative action against lipid peroxidation in vivo, as
indicated by reduced levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide.
Additional anti-oxidative action was evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and catalase activity in groups B and C. Furthermore, our study revealed
that hepatic cholesterol significantly increased in the control group during
aging in contrast to the aloe-supplemented groups, which showed approximately
30% lower cholesterol levels, thereby an effective hypocholesteremic efficacy.
In this report, we suggest that life-long dietary aloe supplementation
suppresses free radical-induced oxidative damage and age-related increases in
hepatic cholesterol.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14598919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

187: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):37-45.

Radical-scavenging effects of Aloe arborescens Miller on prevention of
pancreatic islet B-cell destruction in rats.

Beppu H, Koike T, Shimpo K, Chihara T, Hoshino M, Ida C, Kuzuya H.

Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, 1865
Isshiki-cho, Hisai, Mie 514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

We evaluated the possible scavenging effects of Aloe arborescens Miller var.
natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe in Japanese) on free radicals generated by
streptozotocin (Sz) or alloxan (Ax). The components of Kidachi aloe were added
to a reaction system in which .OH radicals derived from Sz or Ax as pancreatic
islet B-cell toxins and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO)-derived O(2)
radicals destroy isolated islet B-cells, and we observed its preventive effects.
The Kidachi aloe components inhibited the destruction of rat pancreatic islet
B-cells by Sz, Ax or HX-XO. These components were prepared in the form of a
freeze-dried powder of the boiled leaf skin of Kidachi aloe, and measurement of
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity showed higher
radical-scavenging activity in this boiled leaf skin powder than the non-boiled
leaf skin powder.Furthermore, HPLC chromatograms of the "Boiled leaf skin
powder" were similar to those of commercially available aloin (barbaloin
content: approximately 20%). Therefore, the main component may be a phenol
compound. In addition, the phenolic fraction of the Boiled leaf skin contained
large amounts of 2'-O-p-coumaroylaloesin and 2'-O-feruloylaloesin, which have
higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity than barbaloin.These results suggest
that the action mechanism of Kidachi aloe Boiled leaf skin components, which
prevent destruction of the pancreatic islets by specific pancreatic islet toxins
such as Sz, Ax, and HX-XO, involves inhibition of free radical-scavenging
effects, and may be associated with a thermostable low molecular component. The
co-existence of Kidachi aloe-derived 2'-O-p-coumaroylaloesin,
2'-O-feruloylaloesin, and aloin may result in the potentiation of
radical-scavenging activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14522430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

188: Angiogenesis. 1999;3(2):117-23.

A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant

Moon EJ, Lee YM, Lee OH, Lee MJ, Lee SK, Chung MH, Park YI, Sung CK, Choi JS,
Kim KW.

Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea.

Aloe vera gel has a beneficial effect on wound healing. Because angiogenesis is
an essential process in wound healing, we hypothesized that Aloe vera gel might
contain potent angiogenic compounds. Here we demonstrate that Aloe vera gel and
its extracts are angiogenic on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick
embryo. Out of the three compounds purified from the final fraction of Aloe vera
gel, beta-sitosterol showed a potent angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. In
the presence of heparin, beta-sitosterol stimulated neovascularization in the
mouse Matrigel plug assay and the motility of human umbilical vein endothelial
cells in an in vitro wound migration assay. Thus beta-sitosterol is a novel
plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical
applications for the management of chronic wounds.

PMID: 14517429 [PubMed]

189: Phytochem Anal. 2003 Sep-Oct;14(5):275-80.

Identification of major metabolites in Aloe littoralis by high-performance
liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Karagianis G, Viljoen A, Waterman PG.

Centre for Phytochemistry, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW
2480, Australia. [email protected]

Examination of the leaf exudate of the South African species Aloe littoralis by
reversed-phase HPLC revealed the presence of two major metabolites. The
identification of the two compounds without isolation was attempted by HPLC-NMR
based on separation using a C18 column eluting with a deuterium
oxide:acetonitrile solvent gradient and an inverse HPLC-NMR probe. For each
compound, one-dimensional proton spectra, and two-dimensional homonuclear COSY
and TOCSY, and heteronuclear HSQC and HMBC, spectra were collected. On the basis
of the data obtained, the metabolites were characterised as 10-hydroxyaloin B
and deacetyllittoraloin.

PMID: 14515998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

190: Biocell. 2003 Aug;27(2):163-72.

Role of mast cells in gastrointestinal mucosal defense.

Penissi AB, Rudolph MI, Piezzi RS.

Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia Dr. Mario H. Burgos (IHEM-CONICET),
Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Casilla de Correo
56, (5500) Mendoza, Argentina. [email protected]

The purpose of this review, based on studies from our laboratory as well as from
others, is to summarize salient features of mast cell immunobiology and to
describe their associations with gastrointestinal mucosal defense.
Gastrointestinal mast cells are involved in many pathologic effects, such as
food hypersensitivity. On the other hand, they also play a protective role in
defense against parasitic and microbial infections. Thus, they have both
positive and negative effects, but presently the mechanisms that control the
balance of these various effects are poorly known. It has been suggested that
stabilization of mast cells may be a key mechanism to protect the
gastrointestinal tract from injury. Few molecules are known to possess both mast
cell stabilizing and gastrointestinal cytoprotective activity. These include
zinc compounds, sodium cromoglycate, FPL 52694, ketotifen, aloe vera, certain
flavonoids such as quercetin, some sulfated proteoglycans such as chondroitin
sulfate and dehydroleucodine. Dehydroleucodine, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated
from Artemisia douglasiana Besser, exhibits anti-inflammatory and
gastrointestinal cytoprotective action. The lactone stimulates mucus production,
and inhibits histamine and serotonin release from intestinal mast cells. The
lactone could act as a selective mast cell stabilizer by releasing
cytoprotective factors and inhibiting pro-inflammatory mast cell mediators.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14510234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

191: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2003 Jul-Sep;4(3):247-51.

Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced DNA adduct formation by Aloe arborescens var.

Shimpo K, Chihara T, Beppu H, Ida C, Kaneko T, Hoshino M, Kuzuya H.

Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, Hisai, Mie
514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

To clarify the possible mechanisms of inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced
aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colorectum by freeze-dried whole leaves of
Aloe arborescens var. natalensis (Kidachi aloe) (hereinafter referred to as
ALOE) and commercial crude aloin (Sigma A-0451; from Curacao aloe) (hereinafter
ALOIN), we studied the effects of ALOE and ALOIN on the formation of AOM-induced
DNA adducts (O6-methylguanine; O6-MeG) in rats. Male F344 rats (4 weeks old)
were fed a basal diet, or experimental diets containing 5%ALOE or 0.25%ALOIN for
5 weeks. All rats were injected s.c. twice with 15 mg/kg AOM, once at the end of
week 1, and once at the end of week 2. The animals were sacrificed 6 hours after
the second injection to analyze DNA adducts (O6-MeG) in the colorectum. Dietary
administration of ALOE significantly inhibited the O6-MeG levels (50% reduction)
compared with controls, whereas the O6-MeG levels in the ALOIN-fed rats showed a
tendency to decrease (by 30%), although not significantly. In this study, we
also measured the enzyme activity and mRNA level of cytochrome (CYP) 2E1, known
to be responsible for the activation of AOM, in rat liver. ALOE-fed rats showed
significantly reduced CYP2E1 enzymatic activity (27% reduction) compared with
controls. On the other hand, the activity in ALOIN-fed rats tended to decrease
by 11%, although not significantly. The CYP2E1 mRNA levels in ALOE- and
ALOIN-fed rats were slightly reduced (9.7% and 5.2%, respectively). These
results may explain, at least in part, the previously observed inhibitory
effects of ALOE and ALOIN, especially ALOE on AOM-induced ACF formation in the
rat colorectum.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14507246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

192: Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Aug;94(2):97-104.

Blood and tissue concentration of cesium after exposure to cesium chloride: a
report of two cases.

Centeno JA, Pestaner JP, Omalu BI, Torres NL, Field F, Wagner G, Mullick FG.

Department of Environmental and Toxicologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of
Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA. [email protected]

CONTEXT: Complementary alternative medicine therapies based on the use of cesium
chloride preparations for the treatment of cancer and radiation poisoning, have
generated therapeutic interest; but oral or intravenous administration of cesium
chloride (CsCl) to cancer patients as an alternative mode of cancer therapy have
not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). OBJECTIVE:
Cesium (Cs) levels from human tissue were measured to determine exposure to an
alternative medical treatment. Cesium levels are reported from two patients who
were administered cesium chloride in conjunction with aloe vera as part of an
alternative cancer treatment. DESIGN: The samples were analyzed by graphite
furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. As a
reference, Cs was also determined in brain, liver, kidney, and whole blood from
control case materials retrieved from the National Tissue Repository of the
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. RESULTS: High levels of cesium were found
in brain, liver, kidney, bile, gastric content, and whole blood collected at
autopsy as compared to reference levels. The administration of cesium chloride
resulted in blood levels a factor of 1100 higher than normal. The highest Cs
concentrations were found in the liver (1029 microg/g, dry wt), followed by the
kidney (815 microg/g, dry wt) and brain (219 microg/g, dry wt). CONCLUSION: The
high accumulation in the liver suggests that hepatotoxicity from Cs might be an
initial presenting symptom in Cs-poisoning cases. This is the first report
describing two cases with high Cs levels in human tissues.

Publication Types:
Case Reports
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12958400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

193: Anal Sci. 2003 Aug;19(8):1163-5.

Simultaneous determination of hydroxyanthraquinones in rhubarb and experimental
animal bodies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Ding M, Ma S, Liu D.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
[email protected]

A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was
developed for the simultaneous determination of five hydroxyanthraquinones
(aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) in Rhubarb and
experimental animal bodies. A Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5
microm) and a methanol-0.5% acetic acid (85:15, v/v) mobile phase were used for
the separation. The detection wavelength of a diode array detector (DAD) was set
at 254 nm. Regression equations revealed a linear relationship (R2>0.9996)
between the mass of hydroxyanthraquinones injected and the peak areas detected
by DAD. The detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 0.35 ng to 3.13 ng, and the
recoveries ranged from 83% to 103% for different hydroxyanthraquinones. This
method is simple, sensitive and suitable for the analysis of
hydroxyanthraquinones in medicinal materials and pharmacological experiment

PMID: 12945670 [PubMed]

194: J Theor Biol. 2003 Sep 21;224(2):183-8.

Weapon (thorn) automimicry and mimicry of aposematic colorful thorns in plants.

Lev-Yadun S.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of
Haifa-Oranim, Tivon, 36006, Israel. [email protected]

In order to further characterize the function of coloration in plants as defense
against herbivory, two types of thorn mimicry are described: (1) A unique type
of weapon (thorn) automimicry (within the same individual) that was previously
known only in animals, and (2) mimicry of aposematic colorful thorns, by
colorful elongated and pointed plant organs (buds, leaves and fruit) that,
despite their appearance, are not sharp. Some thorny plants including dozens of
species of Agave, one species of Aloe and a palm species have thorn-like
imprints or colorations on their leaves, constituting thorn automimicry by
giving the impression of more extensive thorns. The mimicry of aposematic
colorful thorns is a typical case of Batesian mimicry, but the thorn automimicry
is a special intra-organismic Batesian mimicry. I propose that both types of
mimicry serve as anti-herbivore mechanisms.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12927525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

195: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003 May-Jun;43(3):269-72.

[The effect of extremely low doses of the novel regulatory plant proteins ]

[Article in Russian]

Krasnov MS, Margasiuk DV, Iamskov IA, Iamskova VP.

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow,
Russia. [email protected]

Searching and study on regulatory proteins, which can keep under control the
scope of important processes as like as cell adhesion, proliferation,
differentiation and morphogenesis, is an actual aim of the current biochemistry.
Recently we have identified S-100 proteins in plants of following species:
plantain (Plantago major L.), aloe (Aloe arborescens L.), and bilberry (Vaccinum
myrtillus L.). Extraction and purification of S-100 proteins gotten from these
plants were performed by the method we developed earlier for adhesion proteins
of animal tissues. Homogeneity of the studied plant proteins was evaluated and
confirmed by HPLC and SDS-electrophoresis in PAAG. Both, plant and animal
proteins have appeared to be biologically active at extremely low doses. The
tests were performed by adhesiometrical method in short-term tissue culture of
mouse's liver in vitro. As a result it was established that the plant proteins
insert a membranotropic effect being added in extremely low doses, corresponding
to 10(-10)-10(-13) mg/ml. Keeping in mind that the plantain is well known remedy
for wound protection and healing, in several experiments we studied the
biological effect of plant S-100 proteins on animal cells. It was found that
S-100 proteins obtained from plantain influences proliferation of human
fibroblasts in vitro. It was found that after the treatment with this protein in
low doses the cell growth rate increases essentially.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro

PMID: 12881977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

196: Yakugaku Zasshi. 2003 Jul;123(7):517-32.

[Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and
effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart]

[Article in Japanese]

Yagi A, Takeo S.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985
Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama 729-0292, Japan. [email protected]

Cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, caffeoyl aloesin, and related compounds were
isolated from Aloe species. The antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities of
these compounds were examined based on the structure-activity relationship. It
was suggested that the bioactivities may link to acyl ester groups in aloesin,
together with those of aloesin-related compounds. However, investigations using
the contact hypersensitivity response indicated a preventive effect of aloesin
on the UV-B-induced immune suppression. Furthermore, aloesin inhibited tyrosine
hydroxylase and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) oxidase activities of tyrosinase
from normal human melanocyte cell lysates. These results show that aloesin
prevents not only UV-B-induced immune suppression, but also could be a positive
pigment-altering agent for cosmetic application. In preclinical study, aloe
extract was investigated using phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride
(NBT) reduction in adult bronchial asthma, and high molecular-weight materials,
such as polysaccharide and glycoprotein fractions, were identified as active
ingredients. The neutral polysaccharides, aloemannan and acemannan showed
antitumor, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, and glycoprotein
fractions with bradykinindegrading and cell proliferation-stimulating activities
were identified from the nondialysate fraction of the gel part of Aloe species.
Verectin fractionated from Aloe vera gel was examined biochemically and
immunochemically, and verectin antibody was used in the appraisal of commercial
Aloe vera gel products. It was reported that aloesin stimulates the
proliferation of cultured human hepatoma SK-Hep 1 cells. Thus aloesin, related
compounds, and high molecular-weight materials, such as aloemannan and verectin,
may act in concert to exert therapeutic properties for wounds, burns and
inflammation. The biodisposition of fluoresceinylisothiocyanate (FITC)--labeled
aloemannan (FITC-AM) with the homogenate from some organs in mice was
demonstrated, and FITC-AM was metabolized to a smaller molecule (MW 3000) by the
large intestinal microflora in feces. The modified aloe polysaccharide (MW:
80000) with cellulase under restricted conditions, immunologically stimulated
the recovery of UV-B-induced tissue in jury. Thus the modified polysaccharides
of aloemannan, together with acemannan (MW: about 600000), are expected to
participate in biological activity following oral administration. The effects of
tanshinone VI, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the heart are
reviewed. First, the effects on the posthypoxic recovery of contractile function
of perfused rat hearts were examined. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced a release of
purine nucleosides and bases (ATP metabolites) and resulted in little recovery
of contractile force of reoxygenated hearts. Pretreatment of the perfused heart
with 42 nM tanshinone VI under hypoxic conditions attenuated the release of ATP
metabolites during hypoxia/reoxygenation. Treatment with tanshinone VI enhanced
the posthypoxic recovery of myocardial contractility. These results show that
tanshinone VI may protect the heart against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and
improve the posthypoxic cardiac function. Second, the effects of tanshinone VI
on in vitro myocardial remodeling were examined. Cardiomyocytes and cardiac
fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal rat hearts, and simultaneously prepared
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) induced the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes.
IGF-1 increased the collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts, that is, in vitro
fibrosis. The hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was attenuated in the presence of
tanshinone VI in the culture medium. The fibrosis of cardiac fibroblasts was
decreased by treatment with tanshinone VI. When tanshinone VI was added to
cardiac fibroblast-conditioned medium, the medium-mediated hypertrophy of
cardiomyocytes was also attenuated. These results show that tanshinone VI may
attenuate in vitro cardiac remodeling. The series of studies has shown that
tanshinone VI protects the myocardium against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and
attenuates progression of in vitro myocardial remodeling, suggesting that
tanshinone VI is a possible agent for the treatment of cardiac disease with
contractile failure.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12875235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

197: Acta Pol Pharm. 2003 Jan-Feb;60(1):31-9.

Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and
eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

Kodym A, Marcinkowski A, Kukula H.

Department of Drug Form Technology, Ludwik Rydygier Medical University in

Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe
arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim
of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing
biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical
constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary
content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were
defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the
basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and
microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25
degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye
drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye
drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content
of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the
drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies
showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride,
chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M
and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in
pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops.
The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid,
thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and
neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the
requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph
Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure
approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized
by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin.
Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting
antimicrobial activity which allows the conclusion that the biologically active
aloe substances did not decrease the stability of neomycin in the drops. The
preservation assay showed that thiomersal, both in the freshly prepared drops
and after two years of storage, maintained antimicrobial activity, which was in
accordance with PPh V.

PMID: 12848365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

198: Dent Today. 2003 May;22(5):50.

The facts about cold sores.

[No authors listed]

Publication Types:

PMID: 12778669 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

199: Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2003

Induced expression of the gene for NADP-malic enzyme in leaves of Aloe vera L.
under salt stress.

Sun SB, Shen QR, Wan JM, Liu ZP.

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Nanjing 210095, China.

A cDNA fragment for NADP-malic enzyme, catalyzing the reversible oxidative
decarboxylation of L-malate to produce CO(2), pyruvate and NADPH, was isolated
from the leaves of a 2-month-old Aloe vera L., The level of expression of
NADP-ME mRNA and accumulation of NADP-ME (AvME) protein under salt stress
conditions were compared between a tolerant aloe, Aloe vera L. and a sensitive
aloe, Aloe saponarea Haw. The results suggested that both the expression of the
gene and the accumulation of the protein were induced in the two kinds of aloe,
and the strength was related to the degree of salt tolerance. Northern blot
analysis revealed that the gene for NADP-malic enzyme in Aloe vera L.( AvME) was
induced by high salt, dehydration, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by
cold treatment. To further confirm whether the synthesis of AvME protein was
induced with hours of treatment, Western blot analysis of the samples was
conducted. The results indicated that the induction of AvME protein expression
was obvious after 48 h at high salt and the level was increased with the hours
of treatment.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12766802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

200: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003 Apr;375(8):1169-75. Epub 2003 Feb 28.

Electrochemical identification of anthraquinone-based dyes in solid microsamples
by square wave voltammetry using graphite/polyester composite electrodes.

Domenech-Carbo A, Domenech-Carbo MT, Sauri-Peris MC, Gimeno-Adelantado JV,
Bosch-Reig F.

Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr Moliner 50, 46100,
Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. [email protected]

An electrochemical method for identifying anthraquinone-type dyes in
microsamples from works of art, based in the voltammetry of microparticles
approach, is reported. Upon attachment onto graphite/polyester composite
electrodes, natural pigments aloe, henna, cochineal red, madder lake, kermes,
shellac, and alizarin and purpurin taken as reference materials can be
identified from their square wave voltammetric profiles in MeCN (0.10 mol L(-1)
Bu(4)NPF(6)) and aqueous (0.25 mol L(-1) acetic acid+0.25 mol L(-1) sodium
acetate) electrolytes.

PMID: 12733034 [PubMed]

201: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2000;1(4):283-288.

Inhibition of N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced Duodenal Tumorigenesis
in Mice by Whole-leaf Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger.

Shimpo K, Chikako T, Shinzato M, Beppu H, Kaneko T, Ida C, Kawai K, Hirono I,
Shamoto M, Nagatsu T, Kuzuya H.

Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, Hisai, Mie
514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

We examined the modifying effects of freeze-dried whole-leaf Aloe arborescens
Miller var. natalensis Berger (designated as 'ALOE') on
N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG)-induced duodenal tumorigenesis in
C57BL/6 mice. Experiment 1: Male mice were given ENNG in drinking water for the
first 4 weeks, and then 10% ALOE in basal diet for 16 weeks. Experiment 2:
Female mice were given ENNG for 5 weeks, and then 5%, 1% or 0.2% ALOE in the
diet were given for 15 weeks. In Experiment 1, the tumor incidence and tumor
multiplicity (tumors per mouse) of the duodenum in the ENNG + 10% ALOE group
were significantly decreased compared with that in the ENNG alone group.
Erythrocyte polyamine levels in the ENNG + 10% ALOE group were also
significantly decreased. In Experiment 2, the incidence of duodenal tumors in
the ENNG + 5% ALOE group were significantly decreased compared with that in the
ENNG alone group. These results indicated that ALOE, especially at 10% in the
diet, inhibits ENNG-induced duodenal tumorigenesis in mice.

PMID: 12716301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

202: Phytochem Anal. 2003 Mar-Apr;14(2):83-6.

The phytochemical profile and identification of main phenolic compounds from the
leaf exudate of Aloe secundiflora by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass

Rebecca W, Kayser O, Hagels H, Zessin KH, Madundo M, Gamba N.

Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar-es Salaam, PO Box
35064, Tanzania.

The phytochemical profile of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae) and the identity of
eight major compounds, including the two main constituents, have been determined
from the leaf exudate of this ethnoveterinary used species from Kenya and
Tanzania. Analytical HPLC-MS studies of the exudate have revealed that it
comprises a mixture of phenolic compounds, mainly anthrones (aloenin, aloenin B,
isobarbaloin, barbaloin and other aloin derivatives), chromones and
phenylpyrones with a low content of polysaccharides and aliphatic compounds. The
high percentage of anthrones in the exudate could provide a first line of
evidence for the use of the plant in ethnoveterinary practices.

PMID: 12693631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

203: J Biosci. 2003 Feb;28(1):121-8.

Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage against kainic
acid induced excitotoxicity.

Parihar MS, Hemnani T.

Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Life Science, School of Studies in Zoology,
Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India. [email protected]

Increasing evidence supports the role of excitotoxicity in neuronal cell injury.
Thus, it is extremely important to explore methods to retard or reverse
excitotoxic neuronal injury. In this regard, certain dietary compounds are
beginning to receive increased attention, in particular those involving
phytochemicals found in medicinal plants in alleviating neuronal injury. In the
present study, we examined whether medicinal plant extracts protect neurons
against excitotoxic lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) in female Swiss albino
mice. Mice were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (200 mg and 2 mg/kg body
wt. respectively) and KA (0.25 microg in a volume of 0.5 microl) was
administered to mice by intra hippocampal injections. The results showed an
impairment of the hippocampus region of brain after KA injection. The lipid
peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were significantly (P < 0.05)
increased in comparison to controls. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (EC and reduced glutathione (GSH) content declined after appearance of
excitotoxic lesions. As GPx and GSH represent a major pathway in the cell for
metabolizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), their depletion would be expected to
allow H2O2 to accumulate to toxic levels. Dried ethanolic plant extracts of
Withania somnifera (WS), Convolvulus pleuricauas (CP) and Aloe vera (AV)
dissolved in distilled water were tested for their total antioxidant activity.
The diet was prepared in terms of total antioxidant activity of plant extracts.
The iron (Fe3+) reducing activity of plant extracts was also tested and it was
found that WS and AV were potent reductants of Fe3+ at pH 5 5. CP had lower Fe3+
reducing activity in comparison to WS and AV. Plant extracts given singly and in
combination 3 weeks prior to KA injections resulted in a decrease in
neurotoxicity. Measures of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl declined. GPx
activity and GSH content were elevated in hippocampus supplemented with WS and
combination of WS + CP + AV. However, when CP and AV were given alone, the
changes in the GPx activity and GSH content were not significant. Although the
major factors involved in these properties of phytochemicals remain to be
specified, the finding of this study has suggested that phytochemicals present
in plant extracts mitigate the effects of excitotoxicity and oxidative damage in
hippocampus and this might be accomplished by their antioxidative properties.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12682435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

204: Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Apr;23(4):526-32.

Use of herbal medicine by elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients.

Zeilmann CA, Dole EJ, Skipper BJ, McCabe M, Dog TL, Rhyne RL.

St. Louis College of Pharmacy, Missouri 63110-1088, USA.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the types and prevalence of herbal medicines used
by Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals aged 65 years and older.
Secondary objectives were to compare herbal medicine use according to ethnicity,
sex, age, socioeconomic status, and education level, and to determine patients'
beliefs about herbal medicines. Use of nonphysician health care providers such
as acupuncturists and chiropractors also was assessed. METHODS: Data for a
cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey were collected at the
University of New Mexico Senior Health Center, an ambulatory health care clinic,
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from February 1996-January 1997. To participate in
the study, patients had to be at least 65 years of age, established patients at
the clinic, and live independently in a community dwelling. They were excluded
if they had dementia, lived in an institution, or belonged to any ethnic group
other than Hispanic or non-Hispanic white. Ethnicity was determined by asking
the patients in which ethnic group they identified themselves. RESULTS: A total
of 186 patients were surveyed: 84 Hispanic (34 men, 50 women) and 102
non-Hispanic white (47 men, 55 women). Of the 186 patients, 91 (49%) admitted to
having taken herbal medicines in the previous year. The most common were
spearmint, chamomile, aloe vera, garlic, brook-mint, osha, lavender, ginger,
ginseng, and camphor. Most of the patients who used herbal medicines were 65-74
years of age and took them primarily for health care maintenance or
self-perceived problems. CONCLUSION: As approximately half of the elderly
patients stated that they used herbal medicines, health care providers should be
knowledgeable about herbal remedies and provide reliable information to their
patients about them in a nonjudgmental manner.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12680482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

205: Russ J Immunol. 1999 Apr;4(1):43-50.

Modulation of Immune Response of BALB/Mice Bearing Lymphoma L5178Y Treated with
Bitter Yellow Juice of Aloe vera (L) in vivo.

Oronzo-Barocio A, Zaitseva G, Chavez-Anaya A, Arceta-Gonzalez VI, Puebla-Perez
AM, Alfaro-Bustamante F, Zimina IV, Arion VY.

University of Guadalajara, Mexico.

Aloe vera (L), a plant of African origin, has been introduced in Mexico since
XVIth century. It has been used in the treatment of many diseases of immune
system. In the present study we investigated a specific and non-specific immune
response of BALB/c mice, healthy and immunosuppressed with murine lymphoma
L5178Y, treated with bitter yellow juice (extract) of Aloe vera (L). We observed
that the immunosuppressed mice, treated with the whole extract of the bitter
yellow juice achieved restoration of immunological parameters in cellular immune
response and phagocytosis. On the other hand, the humoral immunity was not
restored. Also, in the healthy rodents treated with the extract, it caused the
stimulation of specific and non-specific responses, the results had significant
differences with the obtained ones in untreated mice.

PMID: 12687115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

206: Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):269-71.

Radical scavenging glycoprotein inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2
synthase from aloe vera gel.

Yagi A, Kabash A, Mizuno K, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI, Tsuji H.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University,
Gakuen-Cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Japan. [email protected]

An active glycoprotein fraction containing 58 % protein was isolated from Aloe
vera gel by precipitation with 55 % ammonium sulfate followed by gel permeation
using DEAE-Sephacel A-25, Sepharose 6B and Sephadex G-50 columns in a yield of 3
x 10 -3 %. The glycoprotein fraction showed a single band corresponding to a
subunit of verectin at the same position when stained with both Coomassie
brilliant blue and periodic acid-Schiff reagents on 18 % SDS-PAGE. The molecular
weight (14 kDa) was confirmed by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The
glycoprotein fraction showed a radical scavenging activity against superoxide
anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system as well as inhibition of
cyclooxygenase-2 and reduction of thromboxane A 2 synthase level in vitro.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12677534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

207: Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1277-94.

Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in

Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS.

Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical
Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
[email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on the
efficacy and safety of herbal therapies and vitamin/mineral supplements for
glucose control in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We
conducted an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane
Library Database, and HealthSTAR, from database inception to May 2002, in
addition to performing hand searches and consulting with experts in the field.
Available clinical studies published in the English language that used human
participants and examined glycemic control were included. Data were extracted in
a standardized manner, and two independent investigators assessed methodological
quality of randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. RESULTS: A total
of 108 trials examining 36 herbs (single or in combination) and 9
vitamin/mineral supplements, involving 4,565 patients with diabetes or impaired
glucose tolerance, met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 58
controlled clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes or impaired
glucose tolerance (42 randomized and 16 nonrandomized trials). Most studies
involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Heterogeneity and the small number of
studies per supplement precluded formal meta-analyses. Of these 58 trials, the
direction of the evidence for improved glucose control was positive in 76% (44
of 58). Very few adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: There is still
insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of
individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be
generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant
further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed
randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and
American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other
supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe
vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12663610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

208: J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2003 Mar;30(2):68-71.

Is aloe vera effective for healing chronic wounds?

Gallagher J, Gray M.

Massachusetts General Hospital, 32 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
[email protected]

Publication Types:

PMID: 12658233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

209: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2002 Nov;13(11):1381-4.

[Distribution of anthraquinones in leaves of two Aloe species and their defence

[Article in Chinese]

Shen Z, Li J, Hu Z.

Life Science and Enginnering Department of Changshu College, Changshu 215500.
[email protected]

Aloe plants are the succulents mainly distributed in arid or semi-arid desert in
South Africa. TLC analysis indicated that Aole arborescens and Aloe hereroensis
contained the high concentration of phenolic derivative metabolites,
anthraquinones such as barbaloin, homonataloin, aloeresin and aloenin. In
younger leaf, L3 of A. hereroensis, the average content of 4 anthraquinones
reached 44.9% of the dry weight of exudates. The similar distribution of the
anthraquinones in the two species were found, which showed that the youngest
leaves had the highest content, the top part of each leaf had the highest
content, and the basal part had the lowest content. Along leaf margin, the
content was higher than that of central parts. However, some different
distributions were also revealed and compared between the two species. It was
inferred that the special distribution of anthraquinones in Aloe was a chemical
defense strategy for protection themselves.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12624988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

210: Food Addit Contam. 2003 Feb;20(2):127-35.

Assessment of estimated daily intakes of benzoates for average and high
consumers in Korea.

Yoon HJ, Cho YH, Park J, Lee CH, Park SK, Cho YJ, Han KW, Lee JO, Lee CW.

Department of Food Additives Evaluation, Korea Food & Drug Administration,
Seoul, 122-704, Korea.

A study was performed to evaluate the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of benzoates
for the average and high (90th percentile) consumers by age and sex categories
in Korea. The estimation of daily intakes of benzoates was based on individual
dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 and on
the determination of benzoates in eight food categories. The EDI of benzoates
for average consumers of different age groups ranged from 0.009 to 0.025 mg
kg(-1) bw day(-1). For high consumers, the range of EDI of benzoates was
0.195-1.878 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The intakes represented 0.18-0.50% of the
acceptable daily intake (ADI) of benzoates for average consumers and 3.9-37.6%
of the ADI for high consumers. Foods that contributed most to the daily intakes
of benzoates were mixed beverages and soy sauce in Korea.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12623660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

211: Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):34-8.

Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by
Indian herbs.

Jain A, Basal E.

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India.
[email protected]

Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the
pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators
include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the
present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha
(TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of
anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs,
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture
supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that
Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica
caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus
indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no
effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced
monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus
indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa.
Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows
anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS
and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12622461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

212: MMW Fortschr Med. 2003 Feb 6;145(6):10.

[Totally wild for Aloe vera. Is all only marketing or what?]

[Article in German]

Ernst E.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12619354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

213: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Mar;47(3):1137-9.

In vitro susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to
inner gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller.

Ferro VA, Bradbury F, Cameron P, Shakir E, Rahman SR, Stimson WH.

Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONR, United
Kingdom. [email protected]

Aloe barbadensis Miller (or Aloe vera) has widespread use in health products,
and despite numerous reports on the whole plant, little work has been performed
on the inner gel, which has been used extensively in these products. This report
describes the in vitro susceptibilities of two bacteria to this component.

PMID: 12604556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

214: Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002 May;16(5):229-31.

[Molecular biological study of aloe vera in the treatment of experimental
allergic rhinitis in rat]

[Article in Chinese]

Yu H, Dong Z, Yang Z.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital,
Jilin University, Changchun 130031.

OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic mechanism of aloe vera in allergic rhinitis
(AR). METHOD: Ovalbumin sensitized white rat used as animal models of AR were
treated intranasally with aloe vera. At the end of treatment, the differences in
the behavior science were observed; the changes in the nasal mucosa were studied
by pathological; IL-2, IL-4 mRNA in the nasal mucosa and spleen were used to do
reverse transcriptive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULT: The behavior
science score of positive controls (8.42 +/- 1.06) was higher than the
experimental group (2.02 +/- 0.42) and normal controls (0); inflammatory
reactions in the experimental group nasal mucosa were remarkably relieved; the
mean expression level of IL-2 mRNA in the experimental group was higher
significantly than positive controls (P < 0.01); but that of IL-4 mRNA was lower
evidently (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The aloe vera are suggested to be involved in
the differentiation of CD4+ lymphocytes, by means of regulating the expression
of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The results suggests that local aloe vera treatment
was a selective and non-traumatic method to treat the allergic rhinitis.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12592663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

215: Zhong Yao Cai. 2001 May;24(5):350-3.

[Study on antitumor effect and mechanism of aloe polysaccharides]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang Z, Wang Y, Huang Z, Zhong S, Wu Y, Yu L.

Guangzhou University of TCM, Guangzhou 510405.

OBJECTRIVE: To study the antitumor activity and mechanism of aloe
polysaccharides (AP). METHODS: AP was administered i.p. or i.v. to Sarcoma
180(S180) bearing mice or Hepatoma22(H22) bearing mice solely or combining with
CTX, FU and ADM respectively. 10 days later, for S180 mice, the blood was
analyzed, the tumor was peeled off and weighed, and the spleen index, thymus
index was calculated. For H22 bearing mice, the survival rate was observed or
the IL-2, TNF content in serum was tested. RESULTS: 25 mg/kg.d or 50 mg/kg.d AP
group could evidently reduce the tumor weight of S180 bearing mice and prolong
the survival time of H22 bearing mice. AP also could improve the antitumor
effects of CTX, ADM, FU, and lessen the chemotherapy side-effects. Furthermore,
AP could improve the level of IL-2, TNF in the serum of mice bearing S180 or
H22. CONCLUSION: AP has the effects of antitumor, enhancing the antitumor
activity of chemotherapy drugs and lessening their side-effects. This effect was
possibly derived from inducing IL-2 and TNF producing in body and improving the
immunity activity.

PMID: 12587212 [PubMed - in process]

216: Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jan;25(1):1-3.

[Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe

[Article in Chinese]

Gong M, Wang F, Chen Y.

Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou

Tissue culture seedlings of Aloe vera L. inoculated with 7 AMF(arbuscular
mycorrhiza fungi) in a greenhouse in Guangzhou showed that the percentage of
infection was 99.67%-100%, the index of infected was 73.3%-86.67%. After being
inoculated 13 months, the seedling high raised 19.88%-51.91%, the leaves length
raised 13.13%-150.96%. After being inoculated 15 months, the leaves juice of
Aloe vera raised 60.87%-233.8% and the dried of leaves juice raised 217%-724%.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12583231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

217: Zhong Yao Cai. 2000 Feb;23(2):63-5.

[Tissue culture and rapid propagation of Aloe arborescens]

[Article in Chinese]

Zeng S, Peng X.

South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510520.

Tissue culture and rapid propagation of Aloe arborescens have been studied. The
main results are as follows: the optimum medium for cluster shoots induction is
MS + 6-BA 3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L; for cluster shoots propagation is MS + 6-BA
2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L; for roots induction is 1/2 MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L. The
survival rate of the tube plantlets is 100% in the transplanting. Cutting down
the cost of medium in large scale of production have been studied also.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12575139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

218: Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 2001 Jun;493:1-278.

NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of EMODIN (CAS NO. 518-82-1) Feed
Studies in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

National Toxicology Program .

Emodin is a naturally occurring anthraquinone present in the roots and bark of
numerous plants of the genus Rhamnus. Extracts from the roots, bark, and/or
dried leaves of buckthorn, senna, cascara, aloe, frangula, and rhubarb have been
used as laxatives since ancient times and currently are widely used in the
preparation of herbal laxative preparations. Anthraquinone glycosides are poorly
absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract but are cleaved by gut bacteria to
produce aglycones (such as emodin) that are more readily absorbed and are
responsible for the purgative properties of these preparations. There is
extensive exposure to emodin and other anthraquinones resulting from the use of
herb-based stimulant laxatives. Reports that 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, a
commonly used laxative ingredient, caused tumors in the gastrointestinal tract
of rats raised the possibility of an association between colorectal cancer and
the use of laxatives containing anthraquinones. Because emodin is a
hydroxyanthraquinone structurally similar to 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, is
present in herbal laxatives, and was reported to be mutagenic in bacteria, it
was considered a potential carcinogen and was selected for in-depth evaluation.
Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to emodin (at least 94%
pure) in feed for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were
conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, rat
and mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 16-DAY
STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were fed diets
containing 0, 600, 2,000, 5,500, 17,000, or 50,000 ppm emodin (equivalent to
average daily doses of approximately 50, 170, 480, 1,400, or 3,700 mg emodin/kg
body weight to males and 50, 160, 460, 1,250, or 2,000 mg/kg to females) for 15
(males) or 16 (females) days. Three female rats died before the end of the
study. Mean body weights of males and females exposed to 5,500 ppm or greater
were significantly less than those of the controls. Feed consumption by males
and females receiving 17,000 or 50,000 ppm was decreased throughout the study.
Macroscopic lesions were present in the kidney of rats exposed to 17,000 or
50,000 ppm. 16-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were
fed diets containing 0, 600, 2,000, 5,500, 17,000, or 50,000 ppm emodin
(equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 120, 400, 1,200, or 3,800
mg/kg to males and 140, 530, 1,600, or 5,000 mg/kg to females; 50,000 ppm
equivalents were not calculated due to high mortality) for 15 (males) or 16
(females) days. All mice exposed to 50,000 ppm died before the end of the study.
Mice in the 17,000 ppm groups lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by
5,500 ppm females was greater than that by the controls throughout the study.
Macroscopic lesions were present in the gallbladder and kidney of mice exposed
to 17,000 ppm. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were
fed diets containing 0, 312.5, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm emodin
(equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 20, 40, 80, 170, or 300
mg/kg to males and females) for 14 weeks. Mean body weights of males exposed to
2,500 ppm or greater and females exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater were
significantly less than those of the controls. During the first week of the
study, feed consumption by males exposed to 2,500 or 5,000 ppm and females
exposed to 5,000 ppm was less than that by the controls. Feed consumption by
these groups was similar to that by the controls for the remainder of the study.
In rats exposed to 2,500 or 5,000 ppm, there were increases in platelet counts
in males and females and segmented neutrophil counts in females. Total serum
protein and albumin concentrations were decreased in females exposed to 2,500 or
5,000 ppm. Relative kidney weights of rats exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater and
relative lung weights of rats exposed to 625 ppm or greater were significantly
increased compared to the control groups. Relative liver weights were incree
increased in females exposed to 625 ppm or greater. The estrous cycle length
wassignificantly increased in females exposed to 1,250 or 5,000 ppm. All male
rats exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater and all exposed female rats had pigment in
the renal tubules; and the severity of pigmentation generally increased with
increasing exposure concentration. The incidences of hyaline droplets in the
cortical epithelial cytoplasm were increased in all groups of exposed males and
in females exposed to 312.5, 625, or 1,250 ppm. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of
10 male and 10 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 312.5, 625, 1,250,
2,500, or 5,000 ppm emodin (equivalent to average daily doses of approxi mately
50, 100, 190, 400, or 800 mg/kg to males and 60, 130, 240, 500, or 1,100 mg/kg
to females) for 14 weeks. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body
weights of males exposed to 2,500 or 5,000 ppm were significantly less than
those of the controls. Feed consumption by exposed groups was generally similar
to that by the controls. Relative kidney weights of male mice exposed to 1,250
ppm or greater, relative lung weights of males exposed to 625 ppm or greater,
and relative liver weights of female mice exposed to 625 ppm or greater were
increased. The incidences and severities of nephropathy were increased in males
and females exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater. The incidences of renal tubule
pigmentation were significantly increased in males exposed to 625 ppm or greater
and in females exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of
65 male and 65 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 280, 830, or 2,500 ppm
emodin (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 110, 320, or 1,000
mg/kg to males and 120, 370, or 1,100 mg/kg to females) for 105 weeks. Ten male
and ten female rats from each group were necropsied at 6 months. Blood samples
from five male and five female rats in each group were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12
months for plasma emodin concentrations; these rats were necropsied at 12
months. Survival, Body Weights, and Feed Consumption: Survival of exposed males
and females was similar to that of the controls. The mean body weights of rats
in the 2,500 ppm groups were less than those of the controls beginning at week 2
of the study. Feed consumption by exposed groups was similar to that by the
controls throughout the study. Pathology Findings: Three Zymbal's gland
carcinomas were observed in female rats exposed to 2,500 ppm. This incidence
exceeded the range observed for current historical controls and was considered
an equivocal finding. At the 6- and 12-month interim evaluations and at 2 years,
emodin-related increases in the incidences of renal tubule hyaline droplets
occurred in all exposed groups. The incidences of renal tubule pigmentation were
significantly increased in all exposed groups of males at 2 years. There were
negative trends in the incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in male and
female rats, and the incidences in the 2,500 ppm groups were significantly
decreased. In females exposed to 2,500 ppm, the incidence was below the
historical control range; the incidence in males exposed to 2,500 ppm was at the
lower end of the historical control range. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 60
male mice were fed diets containing 0, 160, 312, or 625 ppm emodin (equivalent
to average daily doses of approximately 15, 35, or 70 mg/kg) for 105 weeks.
Groups of 60 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 312, 625, or 1,250 ppm
emodin (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg)
for 105 weeks. Ten male and ten female mice from each group were necropsied at
12 months. Survival, Body Weights, and Feed Consumption Survival and mean body
weights of exposed males and females were similar to those of the controls. No
differences in feed consumption were noted between exposed and control groups.
Pathology Findings: Low incidences of renal tubule adenoma and carcinoma
occurred in exposed male mice; these incidences included one carcinoma each in
the 312 and 625 ppm groups. Renal tubule neoplasms are rare in male mice, and
their presence in these groups suggested a possible association with emodin
exposure. At the 12-month interim evaluation, the severity of nephropathy was
slightly increased in males exposed to 625 ppm. Also at 12 months, the severity
of nephropathy increased from minimal in the lower exposure groups to mild in
females exposed to 1,250 ppm; the incidence in this group was significantly
increased compared to the control group. At 2 years, the severities of
nephropathy were slightly increased in males exposed to 625 ppm and females
exposed to 1,250 ppm. The incidences of nephropathy were significantly increased
in all exposed groups of females. At the 12-month interim evaluation, the
incidences of renal tubule pigmentation were significantly increased in all
exposed groups of males and in females exposed to 625 or 1,250 ppm. The
severities increased with increasing exposure concentration. At 2 years, the
incidences of renal tubule pigmentation were significantly increased in all
exposed groups; severities increased with increasing exposure concentration.
GENETIC TOXICOLOGY: Emodin was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100
in the presence of S9 activation; no mutagenicity was detected in strain TA98,
with or without S9. Chromosomal aberrations were induced in cultured Chinese
hamster ovary cells treated with emodin, with and without S9. Three separate in
vivo micronucleus tests were performed with emodin. A male rat bone marrow
micronucleus test, with emodin administered by three intraperitoneal injections,
gave negative results. Results of acute-exposure (intraperitoneal injection)
micronucleus tests in bone marrow and peripheral blood erythrocytes of male and
female mice were negative. In a peripheral blood micronucleus test on mice from
the 14-week study, negative results were seen in male mice, but a weakly
positive response was observed in similarly exposed females. CONCLUSIONS: Under
the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was no evidence of
carcinogenic activity of emodin in male F344/N rats exposed to 280, 830, or
2,500 ppm. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of emodin in
female F344/N rats based on a marginal increase in the incidence of Zymbal's
gland carcinoma. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of emodin
in male B6C3F1 mice based on a low incidence of uncommon renal tubule neoplasms.
There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of emodin in female B6C3F1 mice
exposed to 312, 625, or 1,250 ppm. Exposure of rats to emodin resulted in
increased incidences of renal tubule hyaline droplets and pigmentation in males,
increased incidences of renal tubule hyaline droplets in females, and increased
severities of renal tubule pigmentation in males and females. Emodin exposure
resulted in increased incidences of renal tubule pigmentation in male and female
mice and increased incidences of nephropathy in female mice. Incidences of
mononuclear cell leukemia decreased in male and female rats exposed to 2,500
ppm. Synonyms: Archin; C.I. 75440; C.I. Natural Green 2; C.I. Natural Yellow 14;
emodol; frangulic acid; frangula emodin; 6-methyl-
1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone; Persian Berry Lake; rheum emodin; schuttgelb;
1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10- anthracenedione;
1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone; 4,5,7-trihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone.

PMID: 12563347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

219: Pharmazie. 2002 Dec;57(12):834-7.

Physicochemical and microbiological properties as well as stability of ointments
containing aloe extract (Aloe arborescens Mill.) or aloe extract associated to
neomycin sulphate.

Kodym A, Bujak T.

Department of Drug Form Technology, Karol Marcinkowski Medical Academy, Poznan.

The aim of the study was to work out methods of quality assessment of ointments
containing dry extract from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Lilliaceae)
and also of ointments containing both of dry extract and neomycin sulphate. The
stability of the ointments, stored at 20 degrees C, was studied and the
following criteria were considered: chromatographic analysis (TLC), pH of the
ointments, the content of the substances in the dry extract converted to
aloenin, the content of aloenin and aloin, anti-microbial activity of neomycin
in the ointments, the size of the particles of the dry extract and of neomycin
sulphate in the ointment suspension and the sterility of the ointments. After
two years of storage at 20 degrees C, the ointments prepared with the anhydrous
lipophilic base, did not change their physicochemical characteristics and
neomycin in those ointments retained almost 100% of starting anti-microbial
activity. Water or propylene glycol significantly decreased the stability of the
biologically active substances of the dry extract in the ointments. Besides, in
the ointments containing the dry extract and neomycin sulphate, the presence of
water or propylene glycol induced degradation of the biologically active
substances of the dry extract and a decrease in the anti-microbial activity of
neomycin in the ointments. Considering the physicochemical and microbiological
stability, the most advisable base for the ointments with aloe and neomycin
sulphate was composed of white vaseline, liquid paraffin, solid paraffin,

PMID: 12561247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

220: Am J Infect Control. 2003 Feb;31(1):40-2.

Comment in:
Am J Infect Control. 2003 Dec;31(8):516.

Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with
occupational exposure.

West DP, Zhu YF.

Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, The Feinberg School of
Medicine, Chicago, Ill 60611-2923, USA.

OBJECTIVE: An examination glove that delivers aloe vera (AV) gel to the gloved
hand was studied in 30 adult females with bilateral occupational dry skin with
or without irritant contact dermatitis (with or without erythema, fissures, and
excoriations). METHODS: All participants were factory assembly-line workers with
repeated superficial skin trauma who attributed their dry, irritated,
emollient-dependent skin to a common cause (occupational exposure). Participants
were sequentially enrolled (after written informed consent, n = 29 evaluable
participants) into an open, contralateral comparison study to evaluate efficacy
of AV glove use 8 h/day to one hand versus no use to the opposite hand for 30
days, followed by 30 days rest, followed by 10 days of repeated use.
Participant's dorsal hands were documented by standardized photos at baseline,
during, and at the end of study. RESULTS: Unblinded investigator baseline
assessment rated dry skin as mild to moderate (n = 27), or moderate to severe (n
= 2). Mean time to noticeable improvement for the AV glove hand was 3.5 days
(range: 2-6 days) whereas marked improvement was 10.4 days (range: 7-17 days)
for the AV glove hand. No improvement was detected for nonglove hands.Blinded
photo assessment was rated independently by dermatology research staff.
End-of-study mean global assessment of AV glove hands versus nonglove hands was
1.3 for AV glove hand (0 = no change, 1 = good [10%-89% global improvement], 2 =
marked improvement [90%-100% global improvement]) versus 0 for nonglove hand (P
<.0001). Mean global end-of-study assessments by the participants = 2.0 for AV
glove hand versus 0 for nonglove hand. CONCLUSION: Dry-coated AV gloves that
provide for gradual delivery of AV gel to skin produced a uniformly positive
outcome of improved skin integrity, decreased appearance of fine wrinkling, and
decreased erythema in the management of occupational dry skin and irritant
contact dermatitis.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 12548256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

221: Se Pu. 2002 Jul;20(4):367-8.

[Quantitative determination of barbaloin in aloe capsule by high performance
liquid chromatography]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen JD, Li W, Li SY.

Sanitary and Anti-Epidemic Station of Shandong Province, Jinan 250014, China.

Barbaloin in aloe capsule was quantitatively determined by high performance
liquid chromatography with ODS column, a mixture of CH3OH-H2O (50:50, volume
ratio) as mobile phase and UV detection at 298 nm. There was a good linear
relationship within the range of 0.02 microgram-1.50 micrograms (r = 0.9999).
The recovery was 99.0%-101.9% and the relative standard deviation was 1.37%(n =
6). The detection limit was 0.002 microgram (S/N = 2:1). The total time for
separation and determination was within 10 min. The method is rapid, simple,
accurate and reproducible. The method is proposed to be used for quality control
of aloe capsule.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12541927 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

222: Se Pu. 2000 Sep;18(5):423-5.

[Determination of the active components in Chinese herb Aloe vera L. var.
chinensis (Haw.) Berger by capillary zone electrophoresis]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang DX, Yang GL, Wang LY, Song XR.

Department of Chemistry, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China.

It has been proved that the Chinese herb Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.)
Berger as well as its active components showed many important pharmacology
activities. In order to find an easy and low-cost method to control the quality
of the herb, a CZE method for the determination of the active components aloin
and aloe-emodin in Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berger was developed in
this work. Under the buffer conditions of 24 mmol/L phosphate (pH 10.52),
applied voltage of 15 kV and detector wavelength of 254 nm, baseline separation
of the active compounds in Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berger was
achieved and the active components were quantitatively analyzed. The linear
calibration equations of the two components are: Y= -0.140 + 57.2X (r = 0.997)
for aloin and Y = -0.393 + 1.08 x 10(2) X (r = 0.999) for aloe-emodin
respectively. In addition, the effects of buffer pH value and organic modifier
on the migration behavior of the solutes were also investigated.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12541702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

223: Life Sci. 2003 Jan 3;72(7):843-50.

Inhibition of collagenase and metalloproteinases by aloins and aloe gel.

Barrantes E, Guinea M.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Alcala, Ctra.
Madrid-Barcelona Km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Spain.

The effects of Aloe barbadensis gel and aloe gel constituents on the activity of
microbial and human metalloproteinases have been investigated. Clostridium
histolyticum collagenase (ChC) results dose-dependently inhibited by aloe gel
and the activity-guided fractionation led to an active fraction enriched in
phenolics and aloins. Aloins have been shown to be able to bind and to inhibit
ChC reversibly and non-competitively. Aloe gel and aloins are also effective
inhibitors of stimulated granulocyte matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The
remarkable structural resemblances between aloins and the pharmacophore
structure of inhibitory tetracyclines, suggest that the inhibitory effects of
aloins are via an interaction between the carbonyl group at C(9) and an adjacent
hydroxyl group of anthrone (C(1) or C(8)) at the secondary binding site of
enzyme, destabilizing the structure of granulocyte MMPs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12479983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

224: Cancer Nurs. 2002 Dec;25(6):442-51.

A Phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast

Heggie S, Bryant GP, Tripcony L, Keller J, Rose P, Glendenning M, Heath J.

Queensland Radium Institute, Division of Oncology, Royal Brisbane Hospital,
Australia. [email protected]

The aim of the study was to see if topical aloe vera gel would be beneficial in
reducing the identified skin side-effects of radiation therapy, including
erythema, pain, itching, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation, when compared
with aqueous cream. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of other factors
known to predict severity of radiation skin reaction, ie, breast size, smoking
habit, and one or more drainages of lymphocele after surgery, on other skin side
effects. A Phase III study was conducted involving 225 patients with breast
cancer after lumpectomy or partial mastectomy, who required a course of
radiation therapy using tangential fields. Patients were randomized to either
topical aloe vera gel or topical aqueous cream to be applied 3 times per day
throughout and for 2 weeks after completion of radiation treatment. Weekly skin
assessments were performed by nursing staff. Aqueous cream was significantly
better than aloe vera gel in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to
treatment. Subjects with D cup or larger size breasts experienced significantly
more erythema, regardless of treatment arm. For subjects who had undergone
lymphocele drainage, the aloe vera group experienced significantly more pain
than the aqueous cream group. Within the aqueous cream arm, smokers were
significantly more likely to experience itching within the treatment field than
were nonsmokers. Within the aloe vera arm, subjects who had undergone one or
more lymphocele drainages after surgery were significantly more likely to
experience erythema and itching within the treatment field than those who did
not have drainage. In this study, aloe vera gel did not significantly reduce
radiation-induced skin side effects. Aqueous cream was useful in reducing dry
desquamation and pain related to radiation therapy.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Clinical Trial, Phase III
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12464836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

225: Phytother Res. 2002 Dec;16(8):712-8.

The influence of long-term Aloe vera ingestion on age-related disease in male
Fischer 344 rats.

Ikeno Y, Hubbard GB, Lee S, Yu BP, Herlihy JT.

Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San
Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

The effects of long-term Aloe vera ingestion on age-related diseases were
investigated using male specific pathogen-free (SPF) Fischer 344 rats.
Experimental animals were divided into four groups: Group A, the control rats
fed a semi-synthetic diet without Aloe vera; Group B, rats fed a diet containing
1% freeze-dried Aloe vera filet; Group C, rats fed a diet containing 1%
charcoal-processed, freeze-dried Aloe vera filet; and Group D, rats fed the
control diet and given whole leaf charcoal-processed Aloe vera (0.02%) in the
drinking water. This study demonstrates that life-long Aloe vera ingestion
produced neither harmful effects nor deleterious changes. In addition, Aloe vera
ingestion appeared to be associated with some beneficial effects on age-related
diseases. Groups B exhibited significantly less occurrence of multiple causes of
death, and a slightly lower incidence of fatal chronic nephropathy compared with
Group A rats. Groups B and C rats showed the trend, slightly lower incidences of
thrombosis in the cardiac atrium than Group A rats. Therefore, these findings
suggest that life-long Aloe vera ingestion does not cause any obvious harmful
and deleterious side effects, and could also be beneficial for the prevention of
age-related pathology. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12458471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

226: Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):957-60.

Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin
derivatives in Aloe vera.

Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University,
Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama, Japan. [email protected]

Antioxidant components in Aloe vera were examined for lipid peroxidation using
rat liver microsomal and mitochondrial enzymes. Among the aloesin derivatives
examined, isorabaichromone showed a potent antioxidative activity. The DPPH
radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities were determined. As one of
the most potent components, isorabaichromone together with feruloylaloesin and
p-coumaroylaloesin showed potent DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging
activities. Electron spin resonance (ESR) using the spin trapping method
suggested that the potent superoxide anion scavenging activity of
isorabaichromone may have been due to its caffeoyl group. As A. vera has long
been used to promote wound healing, the inhibitory effects of aloesin
derivatives for cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 and thromboxane (Tx) A 2 synthase were
examined and the participation of p-coumaroyl and feruloyl ester groups in the
aloesin skeleton was demonstrated. These findings may explain, at least in part,
the wound healing effects of A.vera. Abbreviations. ADP:adenosine diphosphate
ASA:ascorbic acid BHT:butylated hydroxytoluene BSA:bovine serum albumin
DMPO:5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
EDTA:edetic acid HEPES: N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine- N-2'-ethane-sulfonic acid
NADH:reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADPH:reduced nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide phosphate NBT:nitroblue tetrazolium Pg:prostaglandin
SOD:superoxide dismutase TBA:thiobarbituric acid TCA:trichloroacetic acid
XOD:xanthine oxidase

PMID: 12451482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

227: Vet Rec. 2002 Sep 28;151(13):381-3.

Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass

Fintl C, McGorum BC.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Royal
(Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin,

Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary
treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any
significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13
horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12403518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

228: Fitoterapia. 2002 Oct;73(6):472-8.

Oestrogenicity and effect on hepatic metabolism of the aqueous extract of the
leaf mixture of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and
Justicia insularis.

Telefo PB, Moundipa PF, Tchouanguep FM.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box
67, Dschang, Cameroon. [email protected]

The aqueous extract of the leaf mixtures of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera
verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis given by oral route to
immature female rats, at doses of 13, 49 and 94 mg/kg per day for 15 days
induced a significant increase in ovarian and uteri weight as well as serum and
ovarian oestradiol. Moreover, a significant decrease in liver of aminopyrine
N-demethylase activity was noticed in treated animals. Copyright 2002 Elsevier
Science B.V.

PMID: 12385869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

229: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002 Jun;43(3):122-6.

[Contents of barbaloin-related compounds in aloe drinks and their change during

[Article in Japanese]

Shindo T, Ushiyama H, Kan K, Uehara S, Yasuda K, Takano I, Saito K.

Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health: 3-24-1, Hyakunincho,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan.

The contents of barbaloin (BA), isoBA, aloin-dimers A, B, C, D and aloe-emodin
(AE) in aloe drinks were investigated. BA and isoBA were detected in 30 of the
31 samples at the levels of 120-570 micrograms/mL and 120-580 micrograms/mL,
respectively. Aloin-dimers A, B, C and D were detected in 8 of the 31 samples at
the levels of 12-38 micrograms/mL, 13-39 micrograms/mL, 11-36 micrograms/mL and
16-69 micrograms/mL, respectively. AE was detected in all of the 31 samples at
the levels of 0.03-1.3 micrograms/mL. When aloe drinks were stored for 4 weeks
at 5 degrees C after opening the bottle, decrease of BA and isoBA, and increase
of AE and aloin-dimers A, B, C and D were observed in most cases. However, in a
few aloe drinks, all of BA, isoBA, aloin-dimers A, B, C, D and AE decreased. In
these drinks, the existence of aloin-trimer was elucidated by LC/MS analyses.
These data suggested that BA in aloe drinks is converted to the dimer and then
to the trimer during storage.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12238148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

230: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002 Jun;43(3):115-21.

[Structural analyses of barbaloin-related compounds in aloe drinks]

[Article in Japanese]

Shindo T, Ushiyama H, Kan K, Uehara S, Yasuda K, Takano I, Saito K.

Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health: 3-24-1, Hyakunin-cho,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan.

Four kinds of barbaloin (BA)-related compounds (A, B, C, D) in aloe drinks were
isolated by using preparative HPLC. LC/MS analyses of these compounds showed the
identical quasimolecular ion peak at m/z 833 [M-H]-. The chemical structures
were mainly determined by NMR, including 1H-1H two-dimensional correlation
spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy (NOESY),
heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple-bond
connectivity (HMBC) experiments. They were identified as BA-related compounds A
(10R, 10"S), B (10S, 10"S), C (10S, 10"R), and D (10R, 10"R) coupled through a
C-10 to C-7' linkage, and newly found in nature. These results suggested that BA
is converted to dimers during storage of aloe drinks.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12238147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

231: Acta Pol Pharm. 2002 May-Jun;59(3):181-6.

Biopharmaceutical assessment of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens
Mill.) and neomycin sulphate.

Kodym A, Grzeskowiak E, Partyka D, Marcinkowski A, Kaczynska-Dyba E.

Department of Drug Form Technology, Karol Marcinkowski Medical Academy in

The subject of the studies was eye drops made of aloe, containing the group of
aloe chemical substances of anti-inflammatory use and neomycin sulphate. The aim
of the studies was to evaluate the permeability of biologically active aloe
substances, determined as aloenin, through synthetic lipophilic and hydrophilic
membranes in a standard perfusion apparatus and in vitro verification of the
transport possibilities of these substances through the isolated cornea of pig's
eye. The permeability process of biologically active aloe substances determined
as aloenin, through synthetic lipophilic and hydrophilic membranes, was analyzed
using the first-order kinetics. Estimated quotas of permeability rate constant
show that the investigated chemical compounds of aloe, included in the eye
drops, diffused through the applied membranes. The studies of permeability
through isolated pig's cornea proved that biologically active aloe substances
could not overcome this biological barrier. On the basis of biopharmaceutical
studies it can be concluded that the eye drops containing aloe and neomycin
sulphate, due to the lack of permeating abilities through the eye cornea, should
be particularly useful in the treatment of inflammations and infections of
external parts of the eye, such as conjuctiva, eyelid edges, lacrimal sac and

PMID: 12230244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

232: Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):491-3.

Aloe arborescens extract inhibits TPA-induced ear oedema, putrescine increase
and tumour promotion in mouse skin.

Shimpo K, Ida C, Chihara T, Beppu H, Kaneko T, Kuzuya H.

Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, Hisai, Mie
514-1296, Japan. [email protected]

The ethyl acetate extract of the acetone-soluble Aloe arborescens fraction was
found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema,
putrescine increase and tumour promotion in mouse skin. Chromatographic analyses
of this extract revealed that phenolic compounds such as aloenin, barbaloin and
isobarbaloin could be useful as cancer chemopreventive agents against tumour
promotion. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12203274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

233: Br Dent J. 2002 Jul 27;193(2):62.

Gloves and aloe vera.

Watts TL.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12199122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

234: Plant Physiol. 2002 Aug;129(4):1843-51.

How closely do the delta(13)C values of Crassulacean Acid metabolism plants
reflect the proportion of CO(2) fixed during day and night?

Winter K, Holtum JA.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panama.
[email protected]

The extent to which Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant delta(13)C values
provide an index of the proportions of CO(2) fixed during daytime and nighttime
was assessed. Shoots of seven CAM species (Aloe vera, Hylocereus monocanthus,
Kalanchoe beharensis, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Kalanchoe pinnata, Vanilla
pauciflora, and Xerosicyos danguyi) and two C(3) species (teak [Tectona grandis]
and Clusia sp.) were grown in a cuvette, and net CO(2) exchange was monitored
for up to 51 d. In species exhibiting net dark CO(2) fixation, between 14% and
73.3% of the carbon gain occurred in the dark. delta(13)C values of tissues
formed inside the cuvette ranged between -28.7 per thousand and -11.6 per
thousand, and correlated linearly with the percentages of carbon gained in the
light and in the dark. The delta(13)C values for new biomass obtained solely
during the dark and light were estimated as -8.7 per thousand and -26.9 per
thousand, respectively. For each 10% contribution of dark CO(2) fixation
integrated over the entire experiment, the delta(13)C content of the tissue was,
thus, approximately 1.8 per thousand less negative. Extrapolation of the
observations to plants previously surveyed under natural conditions suggests
that the most commonly expressed version of CAM in the field, "the typical CAM
plant," involves plants that gain about 71% to 77% of their carbon by dark
fixation, and that the isotopic signals of plants that obtain one-third or less
of their carbon in the dark may be confused with C(3) plants when identified on
the basis of carbon isotope content alone.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 12177497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

235: Life Sci. 2002 Sep 6;71(16):1879-92.

The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and
p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines.

Kuo PL, Lin TC, Lin CC.

Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical
University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, ROC.

The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin in
two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B. We observed that
aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both examined
cell lines, but with different the antiproliferative mechanisms. In Hep G2
cells, aloe-emodin induced p53 expression and was accompanied by induction of
p21 expression that was associated with a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In
addition, aloe-emodin had a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and Bax
expression. In contrast, with p53-deficient Hep 3B cells, the inhibition of cell
proliferation of aloe-emodin was mediated through a p21-dependent manner that
did not cause cell cycle arrest or increase the level of Fas/APO1 receptor, but
rather promoted aloe-emodin induced apoptosis by enhancing expression of Bax.
These findings suggest that aloe-emodin may be useful in liver cancer

PMID: 12175703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

236: Health Care Women Int. 2001 Sep;22(6):585-97.

Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

Zenk SN, Shaver JL, Peragallo N, Fox P, Chavez N.

School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. [email protected]

The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it
likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using
various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose
of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the
U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of
their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their
utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between
the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English
or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of
positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and
nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services.
Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal
therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly
reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including
manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), una de gato (cat's
claw), and yerba buena (spearmint).

PMID: 12141849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

237: Holist Nurs Pract. 2000 Apr;14(3):59-68.

Therapeutic use of selected herbs.

Cohen SM, Rousseau ME, Robinson EH.

Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

An increasing number of people in the United States are using herbs for health
promotion and specific symptom management. Herbs are used to initiate healing
through synergistic responses unlike the specific properties of pharmaceuticals.
Anecdotal data comprise much of the popular information available about herbs.
Scientific studies of the efficacy and safety of herbs, although on the rise,
are less available than other drug trials. Clinicians need an appropriate
knowledge base for dealing with patients who take herbal preparations as well as
the ability to confidently include herbal preparations in their formulary. In
this article, five common herbs are reviewed. The effects, clinical studies,
side effects, and dosing regimens for aloe vera, arnica, black cohosh, evening
primrose oil, and saw palmetto are described.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12119629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

238: Pharmazie. 2002 Jun;57(6):399-404.

Studies on the photostability and phototoxicity of aloe-emodin, emodin and

Vargas F, Fraile G, Velasquez M, Correia H, Fonseca G, Marin M, Marcano E,
Sanchez Y.

Laboratorio de Fotoquimica, Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de
Insvestigaciones Cientificas I.V.I.C. Venezuela. [email protected]

Aloe-emodin (1), emodin (2) and rhein (3) were found to be photolabile by
visible (390-500 nm) light under aerobic conditions. The drugs 1, 2 and 3 were
phototoxic in vitro when examined by the photohemolysis test under both oxygen
and argon atmospheres, although the photohemolysis rate was markedly lower under
anaerobic conditions. The experiments were also carried out in the presence of
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), reduced glutathione (GSH), sodium azide (NaN3)
and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Based on the inhibition of this process on
addition of BHA, GSH, SOD and NaN3, there would seem to be involvement of free
radicals (type I mechanism) and singlet oxygen in the process (type II
mechanism). The in vitro phototoxicity of this anthraquinone series was also
verified in a lipid-photoperoxidation test with linoleic acid. In summary, this
anthraquinone series is phototoxic in vitro. This behavior can be explained
through the involvement of singlet oxygen and stable photoproducts.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12116877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

239: FDA Consum. 2002 May-Jun;36(3):34-5.

Maryland man, Virginia physician sentenced for illegally marketing aloe vera

Meadows M.

Publication Types:
Legal Cases

PMID: 12085811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

240: Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002 May;90(5):278-84.

Protective effect of aloe extract against the cytotoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinone
in isolated rat hepatocytes involves modulations in cellular thiol levels.

Norikura T, Kennedy DO, Nyarko AK, Kojima A, Matsui-Yuasa I.

Department of Food and Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Life
Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Aloe is a familiar ingredient in a wide range of health care and cosmetic
products and has been reported to possess various physiological effects,
antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory and laxative. Aloe has also
been reported to have an effect on liver function. The cytoprotective effect of
aloe extract against 1,4-naphthoquinone-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in
primary cultured rat hepatocytes. After exposure to 1,4-naphthoquinone (100
microM), a decrease in cell viability measured as >60% lactate dehydrogenase
depletion was induced. Cellular glutathione (GSH) and protein-SH levels were
also significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner. However addition of
aloe extract resulted in a dose-dependent improvement of these effects. This
cytoprotective effect of aloe could be attributed to its inhibition of GSH and
protein-SH depletions. The effect of the aloe extracts were also dose-dependent.
Addition of diethyl maleate (1 mM), a cellular glutathione-depleting agent, to
hepatocytes treated with both 1,4-naphthoquinone and aloe extract, induced
depletion of GSH, but did not affect protein-SH or lactate dehydrogenase. These
results suggest that the 1,4-naphthoquinone-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes
was inhibited by aloe extract, and that this protective effect was due to the
maintenance of cellular thiols, especially protein-SH.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12076309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

241: Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(5):341-8.

Complementary/alternative medicine in dermatology: evidence-assessed efficacy of
two diseases and two treatments.

Ernst E, Pittler MH, Stevinson C.

Department of Complementary Medicine, School of Sport and Health Sciences,
University of Exeter, UK. [email protected]

The objective of this article is to provide a brief, but critical, overview of
the evidence related to complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use, and to
offer valid and useful information for dermatologists in clinical practice.
Systematic literature searches were conducted on these databases: Medline,
EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CISCOM and AMED (until October 2000). Where
appropriate, the evaluation of the published literature was based on systematic
reviews and randomized controlled trials. After scanning the literature it was
decided to focus on a selection of two conditions (atopic dermatitis and chronic
venous insufficiency) and two treatment modalities (aloe vera gel and tea tree
oil). Data for the life-time prevalence of CAM use by patients with
dermatological disease ranges between 35 to 69%. The most popular modalities
include herablism and (other) dietary supplements, while atopic dermatitis is
one of the conditions most frequently treated with CAM. For patients with atopic
dermatitis the evidence relates to autogenic training, hypnotherapy, diet,
herbal medicine, and dietary supplements. Compelling evidence of effectiveness
exists for none of these therapies. However, some promising data have been
reported for those with a psychological component: autogenic training,
biofeedback and hypnotherapy. For chronic venous insufficiency there is
relatively convincing evidence for the effectiveness of oral horse chestnut seed
extract. The data for aloe vera gel and tea tree oil indicate that for neither
is there compelling evidence of effectiveness. The use of CAM treatments is not
free of risk; direct and indirect risks associated with CAM must be considered.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12069640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

242: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):281-5.

Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid
hormone concentrations in male mice.

Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S.

Thyroid Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Vigyan
Bhawan, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017, India.

Relative importance of Bacopa monnieri (200 mg/kg), Aegle marmelos (1.00 g/kg)
and Aloe vera (125 mg/kg) leaf extracts in the regulation of thyroid hormone
concentrations in male mice was investigated. While serum levels of both T(3)
and T(4) were inhibited by A. vera, A. marmelos extract could decrease only T(3)
concentration. On the other hand, T(4) concentration was increased by B.
monnieri extract suggesting its thyroid-stimulating role. When the relative
potency of each plant extract was calculated in terms of percent increase or
decrease in thyroid hormones, as compared to the control value, the decrease in
T(3) concentration by A. marmelos was about 62% indicating its possible use in
the regulation of hyperthyroidism. B. monnieri could increase T(4) concentration
by 41% without enhancing hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) suggesting that it can
be used as a thyroid-stimulating drug. In fact, hepatic LPO was decreased and
superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased by B.
monnieri and A. marmelos leaf extracts showing their antiperoxidative role. It
is thus suggested that A. marmelos and A. vera may be used in the regulation of
hyperthyroidism, while B. monnieri in hypothyroidism.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12065164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

243: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):81-100.

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari
Nagar, New Delhi-110049, India. [email protected]

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda
and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various
human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several
thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted
in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used
traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper
reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude
extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of
medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian
plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to
diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera,
Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis,
Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum
graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna
pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya
koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of
hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12020931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

244: Photochem Photobiol. 2002 Apr;75(4):346-52.

Photochemistry and phototoxicity of aloe emodin.

Vath P, Wamer WG, Falvey DE.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park
20742, USA.

Photochemical pathways leading to the phototoxicity of the aloe vera constituent
aloe emodin were studied. The results indicate a photochemical mechanism
involving singlet oxygen to be the most likely pathway responsible for the
observed phototoxicity. Aloe emodin was found to efficiently generate singlet
oxygen when irradiated with UV light (phidelta = 0.56 in acetonitrile). The
survival of human skin fibroblast cells in the presence of aloe emodin was found
to decrease upon irradiation with UV light. A further decrease in cell survival
was observed in D2O compared with H2O, suggesting the involvement of singlet
oxygen as the primary pathway. Laser flash photolysis experiments were also
carried out on aloe emodin alone and in the presence of various biological
substrates. Aloe emodin proved to be relatively photostable (phi = 1 x 10(-4))
and a poor photo-oxidant (E*red = +1.02 V). Only absorption bands caused by the
triplet state of aloe emodin (lambdamax = 480 nm) and the aloe emodin conjugate
base (lambdamax = 520 nm) were observed in the transient spectra.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 12003123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

245: Fed Regist. 2002 May 9;67(90):31125-7.

Status of certain additional over-the-counter drug category II and III active
ingredients. Final rule.

Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule stating that the
stimulant laxative ingredients aloe (including aloe extract and aloe flower
extract) and cascara sagrada (including casanthranol, cascara fluidextract
aromatic, cascara sagrada bark, cascara sagrada extract, and cascara sagrada
fluidextract) in over-the- counter (OTC) drug products are not generally
recognized as safe and effective or are misbranded. This final rule is part of
FDA's ongoing OTC drug product review.

PMID: 12001972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

246: Chromosome Res. 2002;10(2):155-64.

Aloe spp.--plants with vertebrate-like telomeric sequences.

Weiss H, Scherthan H.

Department of Higher Plant Systematics & Evolution, Institute of Botany,
University of Vienna, Wien, Austria. [email protected]

Chromosome termini of most eukaryotes end in tracks of short tandemly repeated
GC-rich sequences, the composition of which varies among different groups of
organisms. Plant species predominantly contain (TTTAGGG)n repeats at their
telomeres. However, a few plant species, including members of Alliaceae and Aloe
spp. (Asphodelaceae) were found to lack such Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3)n telomeric
repeats. Recently, it has been proposed that the lack of T3AG3 telomeric repeat
sequences extends to all species forming the Asparagales clade. Here, we
analysed the composition of Aloe telomeres by single-primer PCR and fluorescence
in-situ hybridization (FISH) with directly labelled Arabidopsis-type
(TTTAGGG)28-43 DNA probe, and with vertebrate-type (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA and a
(C3TA2)3 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. It was found that Nicotiana tabacum
contained Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats, while Aloe telomeres lacked the
corresponding FISH signals. Surprisingly, FISH with the highly specific
vertebrate-type (C3TA2)3 PNA probe resulted in strong T2AG3-specific FISH
signals at the ends of chromosomes of both Aloe and Nicotiana tabacum,
suggesting the presence of T2AG3 telomeric repeats in these species. FISH with a
long (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA probe also highlighted Aloe chromosome ends, while this
probe failed to reveal FISH signals on tobacco chromosomes. These results
indicate the presence of vertebrate-like telomeric sequences at the telomeres of
Aloe spp. chromosomes. However, single-primer PCR with (TAG3)5 primers failed to
amplify such sequences in Aloe, which could indicate a low copy number of T2AG3
repeats at the chromosome ends and/or their co-orientation and interspersion
with other repeat types. Our results suggest that telomeres of plant species,
which were thought to lack GC-rich repeats, may in fact contain variant repeat

PMID: 11993936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

247: Planta Med. 2002 Apr;68(4):330-5.

Angiogenic activity of beta-sitosterol in the ischaemia/reperfusion-damaged
brain of Mongolian gerbil.

Choi S, Kim KW, Choi JS, Han ST, Park YI, Lee SK, Kim JS, Chung MH.

Department of Pharmacology, Seoul National University College of Medicine,
Seoul, Korea.

Aloe vera continues to be used for wound healing as a folk medicine. We
previously reported that A. vera gel has angiogenic activity. In this study, we
report upon the isolation of an angiogenic component beta-sitosterol from A.
vera and examination of its effect upon damaged blood vessels of the Mongolian
gerbil. In a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, beta-sitosterol was
found to have an angiogenic effect. It enhanced new vessel formation in gerbil
brains damaged by ischaemia/reperfusion, especially in the cingulated cortex and
septal regions, in a dose-dependent fashion (up to 500 microg/kg, p < 0.05, n =
34 - 40). beta-Sitosterol also enhanced the expressions of proteins related to
angiogenesis, namely von Willebrand factors, vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF), VEGF receptor Flk-1, and blood vessel matrix laminin (p < 0.05, n = 6).
In addition, the intraperitoneal administration of beta-sitosterol at 500
microg/kg/day for a period of 19 days significantly improved the motion recovery
of ischaemia/reperfusion-damaged gerbils as assessed by rota-rod testing (p <
0.001, n = 10). Our results suggest that beta-sitosterol has therapeutic
angiogenic effects on damaged blood vessels.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11988857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

248: Home Healthc Nurse. 2001 Jan;19(1):50-2.

What you need to know about dietary supplements.

Vogelzang JL.

Herbs and botanicals are used by a large number of people in the United States
and have been used therapeutically in Europe for decades. Consumers are becoming
more interested and subsequently better informed on the use of herbs to
self-treat minor illness. Unfortunately, because of conflicting and anecdotal
information, variable potency, and the widespread availability of herbs, many
home care patients are left vulnerable to potentially life-threatening
situations. A neutral discussion of alternative medical treatment should occur
with all home care patients. Carefully worded questions should be asked and
documented in the medical record. Finally, science-based teaching tools
outlining the risks and benefits of botanicals must be available. A registered
dietitian or pharmacist should be able to help nurses and agencies locate
appropriate teaching tools on dietary supplements, including commonly used herbs
and meal replacements.

Publication Types:

PMID: 11984920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

249: Pharmazie. 2002 Mar;57(3):172-5.

Colour reactions of PH. EUR. for identification of drugs using
1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) instead of elemental bromine. Analytical
methods of pharmacopoeias with DBH in respect to environmental and economical
concern, Part 10.

Hilp M.

Institut fur Pharmazeutische Chemie der Philipps-Universitat, Marburg, Germany.
[email protected]

PH. EUR. 2002 and supplements identify aloes (Rosenthaler reaction), amiloride
hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, dienestrol, quinidine sulphate, quinine
hydrochloride and quinine sulphate (Thalleioquine reaction) and trifluoperazine
hydrochloride using elemental bromine. This colour reaction can be performed
better with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH). Some prescriptions of PH.
EUR. have been improved in respect to environmental and economical concern. The
identification of amiloride hydrochloride with bromine water according to PH.
EUR. 2002 or with DBH shows no UV fluorescence as reported in the pharmacopoeia.

PMID: 11933844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

250: J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Apr;60(4):374-9; discussion 379.

Reduction in the incidence of alveolar osteitis in patients treated with the
SaliCept patch, containing Acemannan hydrogel.

Poor MR, Hall JE, Poor AS.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA.
[email protected]

PURPOSE: In the present study, we compared the incidence of alveolar osteitis
(AO) in patients treated with either clindamycin-soaked Gelfoam (Pharmacia and
Upjohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI) or SaliCept Patches (Carrington Laboratories, Inc,
Irving, TX). The SaliCept Patch is a freeze-dried pledget that contains
Acemannan Hydrogel (Carrington Laboratories) obtained from the clear inner gel
of Aloe vera L. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed
of the records of 587 patients (1,031 sockets) whose extraction sites had been
treated with clindamycin-soaked Gelfoam. A prospective trial was conducted in
which 607 patients (1,064 sockets) had 2 SaliCept Patches placed immediately
after extraction. The same surgeon treated all patients. RESULTS: Analysis
restricted to mandibular third molar sites showed that 78 of 975 sites (8.0%) in
the Gelfoam group developed AO, whereas only 11 of 958 sites (1.1%) in the
SaliCept group developed AO (P <.0001). Further analysis of all extraction sites
revealed that the incidence of AO in the Gelfoam group was 7.6% compared with
1.1% in the SaliCept-treated group (P <.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The study results
suggest that the SaliCept Patch significantly reduces the incidence of AO
compared with clindamycin-soaked Gelfoam. Copyright 2002 American Association of
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11928091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]